24

The absolute minimum for a generalized vehicle that needs to know its position and attitude (orientation) in space is one per degree of freedom. This can be reduced if we have information about the natural modes of the system and their stability. For simplicity, let's assume a vehicle moving in 3 dimensions, that means a total of 6 DoF: 3 coordinates in ...


15

It's probably possible with only the GPS receiver, but it wouldn't be easy and you might have to make some compromises on the airframe design to achieve the necessary passive stability. The traditional set of sensors for this kind of application are, roughly in order of priority: GPS 3-axis rate gyro 3-axis accelerometer 3-axis magnetometer pitot alpha ...


10

Maybe wings never mattered... Altitude: The answer depends a bit on the design of the craft in terms of control surfaces/wings. Atmospheric reentry begins at the Karman line at an altitude of 100 km (62.14 mi / ~ 54 nautical mi) (327,360 feet) above the surface. Which is generally when air resistance starts to matter but that does not mean control surfaces ...


9

Aspect ratio. Look at your two images: both wings offer the same wingspan, but the former requires a lot more wing area for it. Wing area is weight. More wingspan for less wing area means better fuel efficiency and thus better range. Poor aspect ratio, leading to excess induced drag, is a major disadvantage of delta wings. Much of modern stealth design is ...


7

If you just want your UAV to fly to a waypoint, you could do it with a GPS sensor alone, if it was based on a very stable aircraft like a "Gentle Lady" or "Radian" r.c. sailplane, as long as you weren't flying it in very strong wind where there was the possibility of the aircraft going backwards over the ground when pointing into the wind and flying at trim ...


6

Perhaps a summary introduction in control theory could help you. From a control point of view, your aircraft is a dynamic system, which can be described by a state and a dynamic model. The state is simply a collection of variables of where the aircraft is in each point of time. For a full description, you would have the position and attitude in space, as ...


6

GPS Barometric sensor occasionally recalibrated from the GPS Tach to maintain constant piston-engine RPM Gyro for roll stability These inputs sufficed for an autonomous chain-of-waypoints transatlantic flight sixteen years ago.


6

There seems to be some ongoing research into just that: There is an effort underway to develop a UAV version of the F-16. This would be based on the QF-16, the remotely controlled target version of the F-16. The air force is already in the process of converting 210 retired F-16s to QF-16s and it was noted that with a little extra work the QF-16 could be ...


5

Normally, controlled airspace ends at 60,000 ft (Flight Level 600). Airplanes flying higher than that would be operating outside of controlled airspace. Currently, there is no internationally agreed definition where national airspace ends. However, aircraft flying higher than 60,000 ft (18,288 m) could claim to fly outside of national boundaries. There are ...


5

There's a wide range to techniques. In the hobby world, it's much like landing a full-size plane under VFR, you fly a circuit and glide path. Flaps, side-slip, cross-wind, retractable undercarriage, etc can all be used. The difference is that you have to judge the runway centre-line from some distance off to one side, which requires a lot of skill and ...


4

The Bottom Line Up Front Infrared and visual video cameras aid in navigation of larger class UAVs and are helpful for safety but do not satisfy the legal requirements for unmanned aircraft to operate in US/international airspace. Instead, the use of onboard navigation systems like GPS, combined with air traffic control services and common flight safety ...


4

Some UAVs carry VHF or UHF airband radios to communicate with air traffic control and other aircraft. The voice channel is relayed to and from the remote pilot operator via satellite or another form of datalink. I've heard UAVs taking with Joshua Approach in the Mojave Desert, and one time Joshua called one out to me as traffic and vice versa. I agreed to ...


4

Laws around drone use are very new, and the only way to be certain about this is to have a case come to trial. You probably don't want to be the person it comes to trial over. A lawyer would give you a much better interpretation, but even they can't be sure. If you are interested in my personal uninformed opinion (IANAL) then I think it would not count as ...


4

Depending on who you ask, outer Space starts between 80 and 150 km, whereas 100 km is the most common defintion (Kármán line). Countries do not acknowledge the transition from airspace to outer Space as territorial boundaries. Instead the function of an object is used for distinction: if it flies, it must be an aircraft and subject to national ...


4

My answer assumes that you're asking about having IMUs measure angular acceleration instead of angular rate; if meant they should measure angular acceleration in addition to angular rate, then I apologize for misunderstanding you. However, having available the angular acceleration would be useful for a more precise kinematic model when integrating to find ...


3

You want to move a heavy payload at low speeds. This means that induced drag will dominate the aircraft. If we assume a quadratic polar, the least amount of energy for staying airborne is needed when induced drag is three times higher than friction drag. Assuming a quadratic polar, the optimum lift coefficient at that point is $$c_L=\sqrt{3\cdot c_{D0}\cdot\...


3

The ArduPilot project has probably already done a lot of the work for you, if you're more interested in the end result than in the process of creating it for yourself. Even if you choose not to use their software, there's probably good information regarding which sensors and how many are necessary. The APM:Plane subproject Supported controller hardware A ...


3

The class D airspace you are referring to is a control zone (CTR). According to article 24 of Regulation for Remotely Piloted Aerial Vehicles, the following applies to VLOS operations (emphasis mine): Except as required by point 6 below, RPAS operations shall not be conducted: a) within ATZ and beneath take-off and landing paths or at a ...


2

MIT has produces a small-scale RC plane that's powered by ionic thrusters. These are not the same as ion thrusters in space; instead the ions here are created from the surrounding air. The benefit is that the plane doesn't need to carry its propellant. Since there are no fast-moving mechanical parts, this is very silent. I could even see this being used to ...


2

Speed or altitude is relative. To me the answer to this question is "At whatever speed or altitude the flight control surfaces cease to be effective due to insufficient relative wind or atmosphere and only thrust from the propulsion system can have an effect on the craft."


2

A maximum payload may be specified to be less than tested MTOW minus empty weight in some cases, as a precaution against conditions that may reduce MTOW -- which depends on strip elevation, barometer, and temperature. The thinner (higher and hotter) the air, the less a given amount of power can lift, in the case of a quad-copter or similar aircraft, or the ...


2

As a holder of an FAA private pilot certificate, you can take a free course to “renew” a Part 107 certificate. You will first have to create and register an account on the FAA Safety Team website. You should do this anyway to earn WINGS credit toward your next flight review. The site states.. The Part 107 Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Recurrent ...


1

Short answer: the FAA's UAV regulations probably stop applying at 3 nautical miles, but this is more about maritime law than aviation regulations and you might get a better answer on law.SE. The FAA's UAV regulations do state where they apply. 14 CFR 107.1(a) (emphasis mine): Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part applies to the ...


1

These are not actually dimples but shallow bulges. I found a higher-res image online and checked it out. The drone is not very large, less than 2 m (6 ft) long. They are not large enough to have significant aerodynamic effect at the speeds the drone flies. Lots of much faster planes have rows of rivet heads which stand out more than these do. They are about ...


1

At cruise condition, a propeller propulsor can be modeled as: $P=TV$, with constant output power as a function of airspeed. Your objective is to find the cruise condition such that the output power is minimized. Assuming you know apriori what altitude you want to cruise, then density $\rho$ is determined. At level flight: $$T=\frac{P}{V}=(C_{D_0}+KC_L^2)\...


1

There are no such things as white navigation lights - nav light, by definition, are red/green/white. However, we're talking about filming lights at night. And the problem here is that the light source, no matter what colour, is a concentrated source of light in major contrast to the lack of light around it. And so the light will often 'burn in' on a camera ...


1

Three months after you've asked the question, the Wikipedia article you provided a link to in your question was updated to state: The drone's dual engines were a demand of Germany, which intended to use to UAV for surveillance over domestic urban areas and was concerned that an engine failure in a single-engine drone could lead to the drone crushing a ...


1

Under FAR Part 117, only certified "air carriers" are allowed to sell "aviation services" to the general public. Certification means that the FAA has determined the proposed operations, whatever they may be, will be reasonably safe. FAR Part 121 covers most scheduled air carriers, which are commonly called "airlines". These are the only air carriers that ...


1

The time for a free falling object to hit the ground can be calculated with the formula solved for t this is with a being the acceleration (in this case a = g = 9.81 m/s) and s elevation in meters above ground. Once you have calculated this time, you can calculate the distance the object travels horizontally during that falling process by simply ...


1

Those are available in section ENR 6 of the South Korean AIP. Direct link.


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible