42

The reason this is done is due to the winds aloft. The Jet Stream is a powerful current of air that blows in a west to east direction. Airplanes crossing the Atlantic from west to east take advantage of the jet stream to get there faster and save fuel, so a course is chosen to stay in the stream as much as possible. Airplanes going from east to west will be ...


41

Short Answer A procedure had been established to return from a Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) site to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). The maximum weight that could be ferried from Europe was approx. 87,000 kg, so so weight had to be removed from the orbiter prior to being mated. The SCA had a maximum range, unmated, ...


37

There are many factors that would increase the business cost for taking an operation across the Atlantic/borders: ETOPS Crew accommodation overseas Acquiring airport slots in Europe Aircraft cycles (two flights for one destination) Cruise speed (being 10-12% slower is huge over long distances) Geography, especially latitude. I will focus on the sixth point,...


28

Yes, it was possible and NASA had a plan. Enterprise was taken on a European tour in 1983, visiting the UK, France, Germany and Italy. To get there, it crossed the Atlantic on the back of the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (the converted 747). According to Slate, the range of the SCA was about 1,000 nautical miles so it made refuelling stops at Goose Bay and ...


17

If you prefer something more realistic and readily available, go with the fastest business jet, the Cessna Citation X, or if you need a little more range, the Gulfstream 650. The Cessna can cruise at Mach 0.935 over maybe 3000 miles (officially 3460 nm, but certainly a little less when flown at top speed), and the G650 has a range of 6000 nm at Mach 0.925. ...


17

The fastest air-breathing aerodynamic-lift craft for which a maximum speed is known to civilians, and that can support mid-air refueling for an unlimited range, is the SR-71 Blackbird at Mach 3.3. However, all known airframes of this model have been retired and mothballed as museum pieces, and the SR-71 runs on a special blend of jet fuel called JP-7 that is ...


16

Wikipedia article about North Atlantic Tracks says it is to avoid jet stream winds (when flying west) or use it (when flying east): They are aligned in such a way as to minimize any head winds and maximize tail winds impact on the aircraft. This results in much more efficiency by reducing fuel burn and flight time. To make such efficiencies possible, the ...


14

Broadly the legal constructs that apply here are essentially the same as for sailing vessels - in other words when you're outside the jurisdiction of any given nation the laws of the country the vessel is registered in apply, and the captain is the one who makes the decisions. More specifically once you enter the airspace of a nation that nations laws ...


14

The route was IdleWild (renamed JFK in 1963) or LaGuardia -> Gander, Canada -> Shannon, Ireland -> Paris. The trip took a total of about 18 hours going eastbound with tailwinds, and 24 hours going westbound with headwinds. Gander was opened in 1938 and continues to be the preferred refuelling stop for aircraft that can't make the hop across the north ...


10

You need to have both a suitable aircraft and a company with the business model to fly the routes. As to aircraft, only the max8 and a321neo have the range to be really suitable. Westbound in the winter requires additional range that would require a refueling stop in the other models you mention, and that is no way to be profitable on any route. These are ...


10

Your question I cannot find information from [Shanwick Oceanic Control and Gander Oceanic Control] What are their websites? Direct answer ATC centers have no public websites in general. Aeronautical information is distributed by a fixed dedicated network, the aeronautical fixed service (AFS) and its data network AFTN. From ICAO North Atlantic ...


10

Each airborne flight has only one flightplan, which was submitted for that particular flight. The routing is embedded into that flightplan and only that one routing is valid for that flight. In case the routing is no longer available for the next flight due to airspace closure via NOTAM or airways being restricted by time of flight / day of flight, another ...


10

Most flights across the Atlantic don't fly direct great circle routes; they use the North Atlantic Track system, which is an array of "lanes" you might say, usually 60Nm apart, like one of those slot car racing places with 6 or 8 lanes of cars. Just about everybody that can make the trip non-stop will be in the tracks at various altitudes. Off each coast ...


9

While probably legal to fly over the Atlantic VFR, it appears getting out of Canadas airspace is a different matter. After a bit of googling I found this article on COPA's website, saying: Both for flying in the northern parts of Canada as well as in Greenland airspace, an ADF is legally required (refer to TC AIM 3.16.10 and CAR 605.18). I didn’t have ...


9

can an autopilot be programmed to follow a route dictated by a winds aloft forecast? Yes, but the question is how it is done, and these days it's better to think of it as not just the autopilot, but a Flight Management System (FMS). In the case of the North Atlantic Track system explained by John K, the waypoints that define the route an airplane is to ...


8

This guy has a 365 day history online. You could contact him for older values. You can also get some history using Archive.org.


8

Apparently Yes. From NASA document Space Shuttle Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) Sites(emphasis mine): Payloads and/or airborne support equipment will remain onboard the orbiter for the flight back to Kennedy Space Center unless the capability of the shuttle carrier aircraft, landing site location or other requirements dictate otherwise. The document ...


8

The answer doesn't state that half of the flights between western Europe and North America use the North Atlantic Oceanic Track System (OTS). It states that half of the flights over the North Atlantic use the OTS. Part of the flights over the North Atlantic don't cross between western Europe and North America and they don't use the tracks. Examples are ...


8

One of the benefits of having a stop halfway is that the aircraft can refuel. It therefor doesn't have to carry the fuel for the second half of the flight during the first half, which saves fuel. The uplift of fuel costs approximately 4% of its weight per hour of flight. That means the fuel you consume in the 4th hour of flight has burned approximately ...


6

There are no ship-based VOR's or TACAN's specifically dedicated to transatlantic flights. Transatlantic flights navigate using the inertial navigation system and GPS. TACAN's are used on board naval ships for military aircraft to find their way to the ships, but this is typically not for flights across the ocean.


6

Think of 30W as a kind of traffic marker for flight planning. If your planned route is going to cross 30W before the tracks activate (that is, ahead of the traffic flow), then you can file "random route." If you're crossing 30W during the active period, then you have to file on one of the tracks unless you can climb above them before crossing the entry fix. ...


6

Two likely reasons: Economics - If your number of flights per day is limited to 1 or 2 and/or you have a limited number of gate slots available, you're better off (i.e., you'll make more money) maximizing the number of passengers per flight. A 737-MAX can carry around 200 passengers in a single-class sardine configuration. A 777 can carry almost 400 ...


6

There is no equivalent in Europe to the North Atlantic Routes, you simply file direct from point to point. This is the routing for a flight on Wednesday 18th of January, 2017 (DAL4). KJFK MERIT HFD PUT WITCH ALLEX N263A JOOPY NATS RESNO NATS NETKI NIBOG REMSI UL603 SOGPO UT149 OTSOP T149 LIPMI T150 ROLIS EDDF You see that the route terminates NAT S at ...


6

I did a crossing in a Beech Bonanza in mid-july; even during that month I picked up ice. I wouldn't cross VFR unless you had a lot of time sitting around iceland waiting for a large high pressure system to stumble your way. As an example faroe was clear when I arrived and the control folks said the sky hadn't been clear in 20,days; so I got a nice clear day ...


6

The tropopause is in the low to mid 30s in the mid-north latitudes that the NATs reside (and is in the 20s in the arctic in winter) so an airliner crossing on a NAT at 55 DegN at FL370 will be well into in the stratosphere. Concorde didn't use the NATs simply because the NATs top out at FL410. And in any case, the NATs are a large band of parallel tracks ...


5

The shortest on record (and more or less possible) was done in an SR-71 Blackbird Exactly 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds later, they had set a new world speed record from New York to London England. The average speed was 1,807 statute mph over the 3,461 statute mile course The Concorde set a commercial record and is the fastest practical plane you ...


5

Some airlines are now starting to do this on routes short enough. Norwegian air now has a route out of Stewart Airport in NY direct to Dublin on a 737-Max8 I flew it late last week and it was quite nice. I believe they have a few others as well direct to Dublin from other northern departure locations in the US. Traditionally there has always been a fear of ...


5

Iceland is a perfect transatlantic hub. Most importantly, it makes single connection flights efficient between nearly all European and North American cities. Fuel and equipment advantages have already been mentioned. Look at all the city pairs, not just LHR-NYC, and you'll see that it's better as a hub than London, New York or any other city located on the ...


4

It is part of a larger effort to boost Icelandic Tourism and has more to do with the economic condition of Iceland (of which tourism makes up 42% of their economy) than aviation for the most part. Iceland is a nation that does not have a huge amount of exports and relies heavily on tourism. Budget Icelandic airlines have been operating with Keflavik layovers ...


3

Aircraft operating under Part 91 have no ETOPS requirements. ETOPS is only applicable to Part 121 and Part 135 operations. FAR 121.161 only applies to operators of twin-engine turbine aircraft in scheduled airline service. The rules for Part 135 are in 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 135, Extended Operations (ETOPS) and excludes multiengine transport-category ...


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