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4

Definitions provided by the FAA can be found in AC 120-28D - Criteria for Approval of Category III Weather Minima for Takeoff, Landing, and Rollout. From the document we find for Fail Operational: 4.3.2. Fail Operational Category III Operations. A Fail Operational System is a system which after failure of any single component, is capable of completing ...


2

I don't think the quote you gave is correct. This might be the case for some aircraft (like the Boeing 777 with 3 autopilots), but not in general. A more general definition is: Autoland systems are normally designated Fail Operational or Fail Passive. A Fail Operational system must have at least two autopilots engaged for the approach. The failure ...


10

The quoted explanation about "fail operational" and "fail passive" is correct, in that "fail operational" means the system will continue to function after an failure, and "fail passive" means the system will not misbehave after an failure. The exact number of autopilots required to make this work, however, is debatable; and much depends on how you define it....


0

The term is rarely used, at least that I am familiar with in the US, but the times I have heard it used, the aircraft is parked on a ramp, away from the terminal building. This has always been close to a main taxiway, and away from the pushoff movement area around the terminal building. The line crew have called it short parked, because the taxi is ...


3

"short parking" seems to be an informal European term for "short-term parking". So it's referring to the time a vehicle is parked, not the distance. If I heard it about the location of an airliner, I'd think they meant that the gate areas were full and it had to be put somewhere temporary (and inconvenient) this time.


5

"Scintillation" is the flickering of starlight due to the turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere through which the light passes. It is also known as stars "twinkling." The current version of the PHAK discusses a number of nighttime optical illusions, but not scintillation. It does discuss, however, autokinesis, which is a less well-known but similar illusion. ...


4

The term I'm coming across the most is "static take-off" (even used by Airbus). Its advantage is that it's using the least distance since you don't "waste" the distance it takes the engines to spool-up (in a jet anyway) to take-off power. Not to be confused with "non-rolling take-off", which just means the aircraft was holding on the runway before the ...


0

You would have to be a little more specific as attitude is defined in terms of angles in both bank and pitch (angular movement about the longitudinal and lateral axes of the aircraft relative to the datum of the horizon). You would usually specify bank attitude in terms of an angular displacement as well as indicate whether the aircraft is banked left or ...


4

Actually most of the time when referring to "attitude" we are talking only about pitch attitude. You can call bank angle "roll attitude" but it's more typically called "bank angle" in common usage. If I have an airplane in a turn and I'm descending, you can just say my attitude is too low and I need to raise it, and I won't be confused as to whether you'...


2

De-pairing means literally braking up pairs. In the case in question, it means that if an aircraft is equipped with engines of a certain specific type, one of the engines has to be replaced with a version that has been upgraded. The reason for the de-pairing is to mitigate the risk of a dual engine failure: Having two engines that are both affected by the ...


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