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4

I once worked as a bush pilot on floats (my Most Fun Year), flying back and forth from a base in a large mining town to various lodges and fishing camps, ferrying wealthy Americans to their summer "camps" (cottages), and so on. I spent many hours scud running (which I would define as flying under ceilings of less than 1000 ft and visibility of ...


1

The maximum load required for certification has to be maintained for three seconds if the test is successfully passed. You ask about momentary loads which is a whole different story. Wing bending will add inertial loads which reduce the stress in the structure and a sudden gust will not increase lift proportionally at once. It takes some time before air ...


3

It's hard to give a direct answer to your question. But I will try to give a realistic answer. As stated in the "Easy access rules for large aeroplane CS25" under EASA regulation: Except as provided in sub-paragraphs (d) and (e) of this paragraph compliance with the provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph must be demonstrated in flight ...


3

The question is a bit of a rant and unfortunately this answer will be too. I apologise in advance. Suppose there was a SpaceX launch and the camera showed the explosion of the vehicle. How would that camera's footage help determine the cause? It wouldn't tell you if it was a leaky valve, a burst fuel pipe or a failed pump, for example. A camera on the ...


4

So, my sailboat's tank hold 20 gals. of diesel, and at the end of each season I top her up with 3-4 gals. For an interesting puzzle you can work out the average age of the fuel in the tank, but the point is that a sailboat tends to carry old diesel in a warm, moist environment for extended periods. Meaning that- even with additives and stabilizers- you have ...


26

Sheer volume is the reason. Aircraft use fuel at an astounding rate. A Panamax-class container ship is enormous - bigger than the USS Iowa or the Essex class aircraft carriers on display at many major port cities. They burn 9900 litres of fuel per hour. A 777 burns 7.5 tonnes of fuel per hour, or at 800 g/l for Jet A, that's 9375 litres of fuel per hour. ...


5

Airplanes range from single seat to 600 seaters, and they have varying levels of technical sophistication. Some or all of the following maybe in use if there's a potential fuel contamination (with water) problem: Fuel heaters ice filters Fuel/Oil/Air/Hydraulic fluid heat-exchangers. Checks and crosschecks of fuel by fuel vendor and operator before refueling....


14

Answering from the yacht perspective... the problem here is diesel bug. Yachts are often powered by low power 1-cylinder diesel engines, and the engine's main use (for many sailors) being to get in and out of harbour, the main power coming from the wind. As such, a tankful of fuel may last an entire season, and it may not have been fresh in the pumps to ...


33

The simple answer is weight/risk/added complexity, the systems are heavier than they are worth for the problems they avoid in aircraft. While ice blockage has been an issue for aircraft in the past, planes that fly high enough to warrant it, have fuel heating systems to avoid this very issue. The reality is that the chances of water getting into marine fuel ...


0

The gun would not have been fired by accident. The mistake here is that they did not unload all live munitions to make the aircraft safe before functionally testing the weapons system. There are multiple safety interlocks that stop a gun from “just firing”. 1) The undercarriage being down and locked or weight on wheels (WoW) is the first. 2) There will be a ...


12

Note that the 2.5 g limit is for load due to manoeuvring, not only for turbulence. The certification specification for large aircraft on the subject of turbulence and gusts has changed several times since the certification of the Boeing 707. Turbulence, and its effects on aircraft, is nowadays much better understood. Different aircraft react differently to ...


6

Resilient to turbulence could also mean that they don’t experience as much roughness when flying through turbulent air. The wing loading of the aircraft has much to do with this. Modern aircraft with more efficient wings and high loading ratios (kg/m2) will be ‘bashed about’ less than older aircraft with lower ratios. From your example the Fokker F27 has a ...


3

It depends on the interpretation of ‘resistant’. You’d home that problems like metal fatigue are better understood these days, and modern designs may deal with turbulence without exerting large g-forces. It’s difficult to imagine passengers being too happy with exposure to 2.5G so avoiding or mitigating such events has to be better than just making ...


1

No. Any airplane (big or small) flies relative to the air in which it is moving. So, if there's a 10 knot tailwind, the airspeed of the plane will remain the same, while the ground speed is increased by 10 knots. And since ground speed doesn't affect lift, then there is no change in lift produced. Having said that, there are two situations where the wind ...


0

If the wind is constant, it doesn't matter. The aircraft move relative to the surrounding air, and doesn't care how the air moves relative to the ground. If the aircraft has an (true) airspeed of 100 knots, and a tailwind of 100 knots, it's flying 200 knots relative to the ground. If the aircraft turns into the wind it will stlil fly 100 knots relative to ...


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