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64

According to Cold War Air Museum: ...the color chosen by Soviet designers helps to reduce stress and maintain a pilot's effectiveness on long missions. ... the scientists found out that this color keeps pilots awake and not getting tired by the black or grey of a cockpit panel, especially under terms and condition of long range flights or under ...


38

If you take out the political angle (which is by far, the most important), there are a number of reasons for this. Basically, the Russians have a serious image problem. Russian (and Soviet) aircraft have a reputation for poor quality, reliability and safety issues. This will take a long time to fix. In contrast, Japanese have no such problems (In fact, the ...


37

I believe it is exactly what your instructor has said - it helps when regaining control of the aircraft during a spin. The correct procedure for recovering from such a maneuver is to apply rudder in the opposite direction. Then, keeping the control column centered, move it forward (for an upright spin) or backward (for an inverted spin). The problem is, ...


24

(wikimedia.org) Most of the Tu-160 in service are named, much like the B-2 bombers are. The one in the image is S/N: 7-02 "Василий Решетников / Vasily Reshetnikov" named after a WW2 pilot. You can find the names of the other ones on the Russian Wikipedia.


19

The Su-27 and Mig-29 were the result of high-low concept subscribed by both the USAF and Soviet Air Force (VVS) in the 1970s. Basically, this involved the development of two different fighters, a high performance medium weight fighter crammed with every advanced technology (which made it expensive) and a low cost light weight fighter to make up the numbers. ...


17

Most Tu-160's are named after notable Soviet military pilots. English Wikipedia doesn't have a complete list; here's a link to the Russian version. Out of 16 currently active Tu-160's, 9 are named after military or test pilots and 4 after aircraft designers (including famous helicopter designer Igor Sikorsky). The rest, for some reason, bear the names of a ...


17

U.S. Energy Information Administration keeps tabs on most refined and crude prices including kerosene-type jet fuel. For those who hail from metric units' land, these are in dollars per gallon.


16

Three things come to mind: Geometric shaping for stealth is based on the theoretical work of Petr Ufimtsev, a Russian mathematician who explained how to calculate the reflection of radio waves from the 1960s on. The sight-controlled missile targeting which appeared in the MiG-29 in the 1980s. In combination with the wide off-boresight capabilities of the ...


14

It's the sensor of the IRST (InfraRed Search and Track) system. An IRST allow an aircraft to search and track aerial or ground targets using passive infra-red radiation only thus reducing the probability of being discovered (for example using a Radar Warning Receiver). The Su-27 can use it's IRST to track a target at very long distance and engage it using ...


13

The Russians brought some new ideas to the missile warfare when they mated the Vympel R-73 with Mig-29. The most important of these was the high offset sensor lock mode, which allowed the pilot to 'lock on' to the targer regardless of where the nose was pointed at. According to Peter “Stoini” Steiniger a JG 73 Pilot, who flew Mig-29s in East Germany, The ...


11

Variable wing geometry ("swing wings") is a candidate. The U.S. Bell X-5 was the first aircraft to fly with a system for changing the sweep angle of the wings in flight; it was built based on a captured German aircraft whose wings could be adjusted on the ground. The Russians got wind of the X-5 program and copied the idea. The first production fighter on ...


9

Both messages are Russian names: Vasily Reshetnikov (flew 307 missions in WWII mainly as a pilot for a long-range bomber, Hero of the Soviet Union) in this picture and Alexander Novikov (Chief marshal of the aviation for the Soviet Air Force, involved in nearly all exploits of the air force during WWII, twice a Hero of the Soviet Union) in Wikipedia. ...


9

I do not have inside knowledge, but think it is easy to explain why the Su-47 did not progress beyond the prototype stage: Sukhoi enjoyed great export success with the Su-27 and its derivatives in the 1990s, and this helped to advance work on the Su-47. Mikoyan was in less favorable financial shape during this time, which explains the delay in getting the 1....


9

Yes, the Russians had the better ideas. The key was the slaving of the radar system to the pilot's helmet, called sight-controlled missile targeting: The missile would lock to whatever the pilot was looking at. In combination with the wide off-boresight capabilities of the aircraft's radar and the missiles, it even allowed to get a lock on aircraft flying ...


9

200 kN range They should not be necessarily behind. To compare apples to apples, the nearest similar thrust to the Aviadvigatel PS-90A1 (171 kN) is the General Electric CF6-6 (185 kN), but the CF6-6 is 20 years older, so it's not fair. Comparing those two, the PA-90 has better specific fuel consumption in cruise, 0.595 vs. 0.646 lb/hr/lbf. Also the bypass ...


9

I believe that these are static discharge wicks. You can see similarly sized/shaped wicks on a 1/32 scale models of the SU-27, as discussed here, but, more importantly, you can find them labeled with number 53 on the cutaway drawing below. The label is written as Разрядники статического злектричества, which, according to Google Translate, is "ESD arrestor" ...


8

It's a Russian internal city or airport identifier. Many small cities don't have IATA codes, but do have internal Russian codes. This system is called CRT (Center for schedules and tariffs, ЦРТ, Центр Расписаний и Тарифов) named after a department in the organization that manages them (see below). Wikipedia article cited below claims it's also called "...


7

That is the IRST which can be used for tracking aircraft passively.


7

I think reputation has a lot to do with this, I'm sure there are Russian aircraft out there that have outstanding safety records, but media has focused on some high-profile accidents as well as shoddy/corrupt government. Also, certification is probably the other barrier, the bigger the aircraft the more expensive it is to certify it for various civil ...


6

Long story short, there is no such thing and @jwenting's comment is almost certainly correct (see edit below). The only Google hits for "Russian IATA code" (apart from this question) are a series of Wikipedia articles on Russian airports, either on wikipedia.org itself or on other sites that have obviously scraped Wikipedia for content. All the articles (...


5

Apache is pure attack helicopter with just two crew. Hind is a mixed role attack and light transport helicopter with additional room for 8 troops. Different role, different size.


5

Here is the data for Russian airports (unfortunately, in Russian).


5

Although they don't have historical prices, AirNav has a number of ways to view Jet A fuel prices here. You might write them and ask if they will release historical prices to you.


5

The Sukhoi T-50 operates Thrust vectoring nozzle control at low speeds. The nozzles are a part of the Fly By Wire system and will deflect as per the control input given by the pilot. The nozzles move in coordination with other flight controls and it is not necessary for them to be parallel in all conditions of flight. However on the ground they will appear ...


5

It all comes down to cost. It is rather easy to build a large jet aircraft. To build an efficient and reliable large jet aircraft is not that easy. If you read the Wikipedia articles you linked carefully you find in the Il-96 article: [...] the Il-96-300 had been deemed inferior to counterparts from Boeing and Airbus [...] and in the Tu-204 article it is ...


4

It seems that the pilots didn't activate pitot tube heaters but the investigation is not completed yet. "Pitot tube, also known as Pitot probe, is a flow measurement device used to measure fluid flow velocity." So detection sensors in your question refer to pitot tubes and failure to turn on their heaters in icing conditions can cause incorrect airspeed ...


4

Mi-2 was almost entirely produced in Poland, on PZL-Świdnik. That production officially ended in 1992. Since then, a few new modifications/prototypes may have been produced, according to various sources, but they were almost certainly retrofits of the existing airframes. In 2012, it was announced that production of a modernised Mi-2A would start in China, ...


3

Soviet defector and MiG-25 Pilot Viktor Belenko claimed that this was done because it was found to be more soothing and relaxing for the flight crew to operate in a blue-green painted cockpit. This color was very common in both Russian military and civilian aircraft during the Cold War era. I’m not sure but I suspect Boeing did the same thing when choosing ...


3

In a fighter you generally want to optimize fuel and ordinance capacity as well as have competitive performance. This use case generally leads to a design that is different than your average transport category aircraft. The SU-27 has some similar characteristics to the F-14 Tomcat and it should be noted The aircraft had a large wing, clipped, with two ...


3

Before the iron curtain came down, Soviet airlines had to buy from Soviet manufacturers. This does not mean the aircraft produced by the Soviets were good.. they were the only option .. period. You are assuming that that Russian airliners were the equivalent to western built but this is not so. Engine life (TBO-Time between overhauls) and fuel consumption ...


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