A type of runway excursion; a situation in which an aircraft runs off the end of a runway, typically during a landing or rejected takeoff.

A runway overrun, or runway excursion, occurs when an aircraft runs over the end, or off one side, of a .

Runway overruns generally occur during either a or (although exceptionally powerful s can blow an occasional aircraft off the side of a runway, especially when said runway is made slippery by ):

  • Overruns during landing are vastly more common, typically occurring during poor weather (when the runway is often heavily contaminated with water, snow, slush, ice, or any combination of the above, and when winds are often strong, fickle, and quick to change speed and direction), when the aircraft touches down with excessive speed and/or excessively far down the runway, or both. Fortunately, due to the relatively large amount of runway available, overruns upon landing are usually at fairly low speed and result in few or no fatalities or serious injuries (the aircraft, however, is usually still totaled), although exceptions exist.
  • An overrun resulting from a rejected takeoff is a far rarer, and (often) far more serious occurrence. When one occurs, it is usually because a was rejected at very high speed (often unnecessarily so), leaving insufficient runway in which to stop the aircraft; common aggravating factors include runway contamination (as with overruns on landing), an aircraft at or near (or above) its maximum allowable weight, and the late and/or insufficient use of wheel , /, , or other deceleration devices. Due to the sometimes razor-thin runway-length margins available for a rejected takeoff (the amount of runway left available for stopping an aircraft following a high-speed reject is often at, or little more than, the minimum length in which the aircraft can be safely brought to a stop under the given conditions assuming near-perfect pilot performance, which is, in practice, rarely attained; even when greater margins are available, a rejected takeoff, by its very nature, is still initiated a considerable distance [often more than halfway] down the runway, and the aircraft is heavier [sometimes very much so] - and, thus, takes longer and farther to stop - when taking off than when landing), overruns following a rejected takeoff are often at high to very high speed, frequently with deadly results.