19

A radial is always pointing (radiating) away from the VOR. But your instrument shows the TO/FROM indicator as TO. So you are crossing a 210 course towards the VOR, which means you are on the 030 radial from the VOR. What does it mean to be crossing a radial? This just refers to the fact that you cannot determine your heading (or track) from the CDI. Based ...


11

Source: FAA 6750.16E - Siting Criteria for Instrument Landing Systems The more common G/S antenna type works by reflecting the signal off flat ground, called "image type". A non-image type was not available in the 70s as it's a mid-90s invention (patent; IEEE).


10

You wrote that intuitively, one would expect that UHF-radio-wave-reflecting surfaces near your glideslope antenna would be a bad thing, due to the potential for multipath interference However, multipath interference is exacly what we want here. The antenna is mounted a certain height above ground and the aircraft receives both the "line of sight" and "...


5

Change in bearing doesn't change frequency. The ground station always transmits pulses on a single assigned frequency. The illustrations in the link from @CrossRoads only show what would be seen by a receiver at 000 magnetic. For other bearings the whole envelope shifts while the reference bursts stay still. The antenna illustration shows reflectors on ...


5

You've got the heading right. Now rotate the whole view of both instruments to the aircraft orientation, and you see the direction in which the Relative Bearing Indicator (RBI) points. Now it's easy to place it onto the correct position on the card. The RBI points towards the beacon, but does so relative to the aircraft The dial with the compass in the ...


4

Short answer: there seems to be no general plan to replace airways with Q and T routes. The FAA originally proposed replacing them, but the final rule doesn't include it. You can review the source rulemaking documents in the Federal Register and it looks like the idea of replacing (or retaining) airways seems to have been discarded, possibly in response to ...


4

Radials radiate outwards from a station, just like the magnetic bearings on a compass rose. So, the outward radial is just the reciprocal of the inbound bearing. The key is the “TO” flag. If you were to be flying a heading of 210 degrees you would fly TO the navaid. Draw it out on a piece of paper, or refer to a chart or your study material. Orientation ...


3

The short answer is no, you don't need the true bearing to the station if you have magnetic bearing. Presuming of course that your airplane has a magnetic compass to fly that bearing, there is simply no reason to convert to true.


3

This is a terminology problem - and I think you're actually both right but you need to learn the terminology. Radials always radiate out from the VOR. You should absolutely always set the needle to the heading you intend to fly in order to avoid reverse sensing. However, if you're intending to "fly inbound on the 240 radial" then you're actually on ...


2

If the RBI is of the fixed card variety, the N is not indicative of North. It only indicates the direction the nose of the aircraft is pointing. You can actually dispense with the cardinal direction letters and just focus on the bearing numbers. If the exact bearing is not needed (in this case, it is not), use the RBI to indicate clock direction from your ...


2

Your instructor is correct - using his method, means you do not have to do any reciprocal course/heading/plus/minus 180 calculations - instead you must remember "Radial 050 outbound" set the head (arrow/course) on 050. "Radial 160 inbound" set the tail on 160 which means the head/arrow/course will be on 340. It's evident that you have to ...


1

A couple of years ago a black hole appeared over Austria (Vienna FIR—LOVV; except west Tirol which is very narrow and routes are still used in the neighbouring FIRs) where there are no routes any more and all routing is ad-hoc between fixes. It has since grown to cover Slovakia (Bratislava FIR—LZBB), Hungaria (Budapest FIR—LHCC), Slovenia (Ljubljana FIR—LJLA)...


1

Well, all of you (and, the instructor) are correct for using your own technique on the aircraft in which you are familiar. The technique can vary depending on your equipment. So let’s clear up a few things. You can not get reverse sensing with a properly working HSI (which the G500 should have). This is because the HSI should always orient the displayed ...


1

The gyro on the left gives you the orientation of the aicraft and the RBI arrow gives you the direction of the beacon relative to your aircraft. First one, you have the aircraft facing south and in the aircraft the beacon is at your right (3 o'clock). Second one you are flying east and the beacon is at your 10 o'clock. In order to fly directly to the beacon ...


1

You don't get either and you don't need it. The VOR signal gives you a radial to the station. This is normally referenced to magnetic north, because that's what you have on board¹, but it might have been last aligned twenty years ago and so might be a couple of degrees off as the magnetic declination slowly changes over time. It does not matter what it is ...


1

A TACAN or VOR station actually transmits two signals: a reference signal whose phase shift is independent of azimuth angle a signal that is phase shifted, where phase shift (0-360°) equals the azimth angle At the receiver side the phase difference of both signals is determined. The phase difference equals the bearing. There are various ways of ...


1

Each country publishes an AIP that, among many other things, lists all their waypoints and coordinates. Note that an AIP is formatted as a written document, not as a database. Some also publish databases, but they each use a different format and may require payment to access. There are commercial services that collect all these databases (or parse the AIPs ...


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