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2

The fighters may have the the guard frequency painted on them, as in this photo: (source and more photos) But as others have said, the likelihood of a person Knowing how to tune an aviation radio, Recognizing what "STBY 121.50" means, and Not knowing in the first place that 121.5 is the guard frequency seems vanishingly small. Besides, unless ...


3

The actual operation of a crop duster airplane will almost invariably happen in uncontrolled airspace. In the US, controlled airspace does not start until 700, 1200, or in a very few select areas 14,500 feet above ground level; below that the airspace is Class G, uncontrolled. Crop dusters operate at a few hundred feet above ground level or lower (a quick ...


3

My speculation on what happened is: The first controller was in training and the second controller was their trainer. The trainee cleared you into the Class B but the trainer though that was a bad idea (perhaps there was traffic nearby they couldn't have kept you away from, or they wanted to teach you a lesson about calling too late, or they thought their ...


3

The answers here are correct. Just adding my perspective as a controller. Runway hold short instructions. This is a required readback item. Super-high priority. We need to hear three things in one single transmission: "Hold short," the runway number, and your callsign. All three. In one transmission. We need it. Runway assignment. This isn't ...


2

Other answers have addressed where and why but perhaps not how or, as you asked, when. I'll answer that for FAA-land. The transferring controller must transfer radar identification of the target before entering the receiving controller's airspace (for VFR aircraft) or protected airspace (for IFR aircraft, i.e. 1.5 or 2.5 NM from the airspace boundary). The ...


2

Pondlife has a good answer for if the both aircraft are IFR. In that case visual separation is used in lieu of other standard separation (radar, non-radar, or vertical separation), and in that case the "traffic in sight"—"maintain visual separation"—"wilco" sequence must happen before standard separation is lost. But for VFR ...


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