48

Every US controller I've ever heard from says they'd prefer to be talking to every aircraft in their airspace, period. This lets them know your intentions and allows them to move you around if needed, which saves them far more time than it costs giving you traffic advisories. If you don't have a transponder, they can still tag your primary target with your ...


47

This is speculative and I haven't looked at the links you gave, but I can think of a few things: Having another aircraft there gives ATC a way to gather information that they otherwise couldn't. For example, if the second pilot had observed that the 'incapacitated' pilot was actually awake and alert and there was a second person in the cockpit brandishing a ...


26

"Acknowledged" means I heard you & understood what you said & I take responsibility for the information you just gave me. "Affirm" and its opposite, "negative," are answers to a yes/no question. They aren't really interchangeable, although Hollywood script writers are notorious for getting details like that wrong. An ...


25

They'd rather talk to you, even if they can't do much for you. If you report over XYZ at 4500 heading east, they can correlate that to a primary target & note that it's N1234S "over there". They may have to call you again if traffic is heading your way at 7,500' to confirm your altitude, but unless they're busy, that's no big deal. And if the targets are ...


18

In the particular incident you are referencing, the incapacitated pilot was delirious with hypoxia. After the spotter confirmed that the pilot was conscious and non-evasive, ATC asked the spotter to remain nearby and try to get the pilot's attention visually while chanting "oxygen oxygen oxygen" over the radio. They understood that in his ...


12

There's no specific reason why the lower frequencies are used for towers, but it's not a coincidence that they are grouped together (mostly, there are tower frequencies that are not at the lower end.) Spectrum management is a complex effort to make maximum use of the fixed amount of frequencies available for use. In the US this falls under the FAA Spectrum ...


12

Neither or both, depending. Unlike VHF and higher bands, which travel mostly via line of sight and therefore have limited range depending on altitude, HF radio relies on skywave propagation. This means the radio waves travel up, bounce off a layer in the upper atmosphere and then travel back down to the receiver. They may even bounce up and down between ...


10

Yes, it's the same. An airport consists of one or several runways, one or several parking areas (aprons) and a number of taxiways connecting them. All runways and taxiways are uniquely named. When taxiing around the airport - be it from runway to parking, or vice versa, or between parking areas, hangars etc. - ATC instructs the pilot of the exact route to ...


10

HF propagation over long distances depends on the ionosphere, and the state of the ionosphere depends on the sun — it varies with solar activity (which follows the 11-year sunspot cycle), time of year, and time of day. The two most important layers of the ionosphere are the D-layer (60-90km above the Earth), which absorbs signals, and the F-layer (250-400km ...


9

ATC may have wanted the other plane to keep an eye on them in case they crashed, which could save hours or days of someone else trying to find it again. Such a delay could make a life-or-death difference to someone who survived the initial crash but with serious injuries.


8

Movies frequently get pilot language wrong, and this is no exception. Acknowledge is a command, not a response. ATC would instruct a pilot to acknowledge a transmission, and that is then acknowledged Affirmative is not the correct phraseology, pilots say Affirm only for yes. Negative means no, so affirmative is not said because it could be confused with ...


7

Additionally, there will be more aircraft interrogating (on 1030MHz) and responding to interrogations on 1090MHz for transponder based systems (TCAS, SSR). Actually, no. More Mode S (vs Mode A/C) aircraft means TCAS can use Selective interrogation instead of All-Call interrogation, which will reduce congestion from unnecessary replies. Also, newer TCAS ...


6

In the UK, the phraseology bible is CAP 413 and that does not list the term "Acknowledged" as standard phraseology at all. The phrase "ACKNOWLEDGE" can be used by the asker to: Let me know that you have received and understood this message. And is responded usually with: Acknowledgements of information should be signified by the use of ...


5

There was an interesting example of this in the UK perhaps ten years ago. The solo pilot of a small plane lost his sight while in the air, an RAF instructor went up in a Tucano from Linton-on-Ouse and (eventually) guided him to a safe landing. I'm afraid I have no information on whether the pilot flew again. This is obviously very similar to the example ...


5

What happens in the flight deck at an airport with a complex taxiway system (like NY JFK, which has many multiple parallel taxiways and numerous wrong-turn traps) is the pilot taking the clearance will (should) write it down like a flight plan clearance before reading it back (it's a good idea to write down any clearance with more than 3 elements in it). ...


5

The example KFCM to KRNH starts under the Class B shelf, in this case you check KFCM's chart supplement, and it says, "MINNEAPOLIS APP/DEP CON 134.7": Which also agrees with the sectional (shown below). Zoom out in the sectional, and you'll note different frequencies to the NW and NE of the Class B, so if you're transitioning through, the ...


5

HF radio waves, which have frequencies between 3 MHz and 30 MHz, propagate beyond line-of-sight by bouncing off the ionosphere. The ionosphere is in the upper atmosphere, and it's made up of several layers of particles ionized by the sun. One layer, which is called the D layer, scatters radio waves in all directions, which has the effect of absorbing radio ...


4

Generally speaking, you should read back all clearances, instructions and warnings. You may in some cases not need to read back information, unless it is safety critical (for example QNH). One of the only instructions I can think of that you do not need to read back is an instruction to report something (report passing 5000 feet, report established, report ...


4

The answers here are correct. Just adding my perspective as a controller. Runway hold short instructions. This is a required readback item. Super-high priority. We need to hear three things in one single transmission: "Hold short," the runway number, and your callsign. All three. In one transmission. We need it. Runway assignment. This isn't ...


4

The Aerodrome Traffic Frequency is a frequency for aircraft to use to aid self-sequencing at airports where a control tower is not operational. Another name for it is the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency. 122.8 MHz was the original frequency designated for UNICOM use and remains one of the more common ones. The APP/DEP frequencies listed tell pilots that, ...


4

in that frequency range (118-137MHz) you are correct, the percentage change in frequency from the bottom to the top of the range is small, so there will be no significant change in propagation characteristics, range, data rate, etc. going from 118 to 137. In addition, the same radio antenna can be effectively used across the whole frequency range, simply by ...


4

To answer the question in the title, the AIM 4-3-2 says: When operating at an airport where traffic control is being exercised by a control tower, pilots are required to maintain two-way radio contact with the tower while operating within the Class B, Class C, and Class D surface area unless the tower authorizes otherwise. Initial callup should be made ...


4

The answer saying that "Each country has their own governing rules regarding qualification for Private Pilot Licenses" is of course wrong. The OP has specifically asked about EASA. The privileges of an EASA licence may be exercised by the holder in any EASA member country by virtue of § 11.1 of the Basic Regulation – Regulation (EU) 2018/1139. if ...


4

It varies all over the place and depends on lots of stuff- here is a summary. HF radio beams below about 30 megahertz that are aimed horizontally bounce back and forth between the earth and the ionosphere; so over-the-horizon propagation is common. If you are lucky you can bounce an intelligible signal all the way around the world on 100 watts and if you are ...


3

May not have been an explicit consideration, but the bottom of the band is pretty close to Band II FM broadcast radio. 118MHz could interfere with 96.6MHz transmissions, the difference between them being 21,4 MHz, twice the usual 10.7MHz IF (intermediate frequency) This is known as the "image frequency". It's only problematic with a "high side&...


3

Taxi schemes vary with the airport, and also with the prevailing conditions. Some airports may issue a taxi clearance to a runway with intervening taxiways, while others may issue a taxi clearance to a holding point, and then issue another clearance as the aircraft approaches that point. Some locations use standard taxi routings with comprehensive airport ...


3

No, is the short answer. Aircraft generally only carry radios covering the bands they require as standard - i.e., those covering aviation communications and navigation. I have an airband transceiver here and it can't physically be tuned that high. As far as I know, the ones in the planes I fly are identical. I can't see any advantage in doing otherwise, as ...


3

My speculation on what happened is: The first controller was in training and the second controller was their trainer. The trainee cleared you into the Class B but the trainer though that was a bad idea (perhaps there was traffic nearby they couldn't have kept you away from, or they wanted to teach you a lesson about calling too late, or they thought their ...


3

The actual operation of a crop duster airplane will almost invariably happen in uncontrolled airspace. In the US, controlled airspace does not start until 700, 1200, or in a very few select areas 14,500 feet above ground level; below that the airspace is Class G, uncontrolled. Crop dusters operate at a few hundred feet above ground level or lower (a quick ...


3

The answers here already explain how the information might be disseminated to pilots if the change is planned well in advance. But what if conditions require changing the frequency in use without notice? Many facilities have backup equipment for each frequency. If the controller determines that a problem with radio communications is on the ATC side (e.g. if ...


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