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8

It depends on the Message Format TYPE Code and the aircraft state. In your example, being on final approach would have no effect as the primary state criteria is being airborne (vs. surface). The rates are 'nominal' rates in that there is a programmed 'dither' to the nominal rate to avoid synchronous garble. The nominal rate for TYPE codes 1 through 4 (ID ...


6

There is not much gained by the third dimension for your use case. In GA you generally want to avoid any active weather. Why make it more complicated? can't go over it (performance limited) can't go under it (microbursts can kill you) => only way is to go around it and therefore no need for that 3D information.


6

"Radiation" is a broad term and does not always imply radio active isotope material. High power radar units can have adverse effects on the human body. The power that radar systems emit varies from a few milliwatts (police traffic control radar) to many kilowatts (large space tracking radars). However, a number of factors significantly reduce human ...


4

What you propose is called a monopulse radar. Monopulse antannas have two feeds and beams, slighly to the left and right of boresight or above and below. In transmit mode, both feeds are connected in parallel to create centered beam and a single pulse is transmitted this way. In receive mode, the phase or amplitude difference in the two channels is used to ...


4

There are lots of ways to smuggle goods with planes and it depends what you are smuggling and the aircraft on which you are smuggling it. Smugglers often bank on the fact that most countries do not have or allocate the resources to search every aircraft throughly enough from top to bottom before every flight as that is simply impractical on some level. Some ...


4

RCS depends on the aspect presented to the radar source, so an aircraft can offer a low radar return from one angle and a large one from another. How much the RCS changes by depends on how much work went into optimizing the airframe from all sides. Since reduced RCS tends to be at odds with aerodynamic performance, not all sides of an aircraft will be ...


4

Garbling occurs when two aircraft are close enough that their replies overlap, as there is no reliable way to sort them out. Usually this occurs when the aircraft are passing above each other as the radar scans the entire vertical column at once, only rotating horizontally. The problem is that the controller might not be able to check the aircraft are ...


3

1) What I expect is that there is a transmitter (or multiple) on 1090 MHz to the west of the RADAR that does not conform to the ICAO standard. I would start by looking at the decoded replies that the MSSR is receiving (not in ASTERIX format, but raw datagrams format. I believe the INDRA MSSRs can provide this). This may give a hint as to what the cause is(e....


3

Most air traffic control systems nowaday have various safety net functions built into them. Short Term Conflict Alerting is one of these functions. Short Term Conflict Alerting (STCA) works on the basis of extrapolating the current position using velocity and turn rate to predict imminent separation violations. If such a imminent separation violation is ...


3

Data about the height of precipitation would be useful in real-time avoidance of weather phenomena. In fact, this information is provided by NEXRAD and is known as "echo tops." Echo tops also appear in suitably sophisticated SiriusXM weather displays. However, ground based radar is not the primary tool used for weather avoidance, and in particular, ...


3

The danger of VFR flight into IMC is flying into clouds when you aren't properly trained for it. Icing generally only occurs in clouds between -20°C and +5°C. NEXRAD shows the strength of the radar returns, which is usually an indicator of precipitation intensity, though, not clouds, so it doesn't really help avoid either of those things. Regarding why ...


3

Formulae for stealth paint seem to be closely guarded secrets. In electromagnetic test chambers we use radiation-absorbent materials (RAM) to absorb stray fields. I have seen stealth paints offered to motorists wishing to avoid police radar speed traps (some hope there!). They appeared to be ferromagnetic powder mixed with some kind of binder (back in WWII ...


3

Before we talk about lock-on, let's consider the WWII battle between the RAF's u-boat hunting radars and the Metox radar detector on the German submarines. The RAF introduced their first sub-hunting radar in 1940. This initially consisted of two antennas that had a wide broadcast pattern, about 30 degrees on either side of the antenna centerline. They put ...


3

Phalanx can track and destroy missile size and speed targets, so as long as the drone or UAV has sufficient radar cross section, there would be no reason why Palanx would be unable to engage them. The feasibility and utility of Phalanx, and similar systems against small drones and such is limited however. Imagine the risk of collateral damage if they were ...


3

Considering that these systems are tested against drones, then the answer is yes. The limitations on what is too small to engage for any particular system are likely classified.


2

Smaller than that of a normal aircraft, but very far away from a VLO/stealth one. The RCS of various light aircraft has been measured and published here: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a029262.pdf The RCS of the human body is on the order of -20 to -5 dBsm: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7027834 The glider can't hide the human inside. ...


2

Yes, it is possible to fly "under the radar". The type of radio waves that are used by radar and similar equipment to track aircraft generally travel in straight lines. This means that, because of the curvature of the Earth, radars have blind spots at low altitudes when you are sufficiently far from the radar. See the top illustration (not to scale): While ...


2

I have had a similar problem with a Thales RSM970S where a (hidden) QRSLS alarm caused a watchdog failure. The best we could conclude was that the interference was caused by non-compliant wireless equipment, but tracking the user proved to be impossible. With the help of the OEM we modified the bite alarm reference file to reduce the systems sensitivity to ...


1

In the US, you can get flight following anywhere there is radar services from ATC. It is not dependent on a control tower. However, it is dependent on ATC workload. Most controllers in our area would prefer to talk to every blip on their screen. Especially near or under their Bravo shelves. You can pick up flight following by contacting the appropriate ...


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