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11

DME can be used in the published missed, but does not have to be. There are other ways to identify the missed approach fix. The missed approach instructions are: MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 1500 then climbing right turn to 3500 on ATL VORTAC R-005 to TROYS INT/ATL 15 DME and hold. The missed approach procedure calls for a hold at the TROYS intersection. ...


7

The equipment requirement (in the aircraft) are different for each of these approaches. In the upper-left box of the Z approach, you can see that DME is required to make this approach. This requirement is not listed in the Y approach. If your aircraft has the right equipment, you can reduce your minimums by selecting the appropriate approach plate. In ...


6

The FAA's ATC orders cover this for the US. Note that controllers can use radar instead of visual contact: 3−10−7. LANDING CLEARANCE WITHOUT VISUAL OBSERVATION When an arriving aircraft reports at a position where he/she should be seen but has not been visually observed, advise the aircraft as a part of the landing clearance that it is not in ...


5

DA/DH and MDA/MDH both get a callout of "minimums". The pilot is expected to know (from having briefed the approach earlier) which meaning applies. This is true for every FMS/GPS I've seen, not just the B737. On planes without this feature, one of the pilots will call out "minimums", and even a solo pilot (for smaller planes) should say the word to himself ...


4

The best reference is the ICAO GBAS Guide. Unfortunately, it doesn't have diagrams to help understand it. The Final Approach Segment (FAS) is a geodesic path to the runway. It is horizontally aligned with the runway center line and has a glide path angle that descends to the Threshold Crossing Height (TCH) directly above the Landing Threshold Point (LTP)....


2

The FAA has an FAQ on GBAS (ground-based augmentation of GPS/GNSS). It says they no longer use the term LAAS, instead they now use GBAS to be consistent with ICAO terminology. A GBAS approach is called GLS on the approach charts. The FAQ has information about where GBAS is used: Where are operational GBAS systems located? Currently, two U.S. ...


2

Obstacle Identification Surfaces apply to departures and the portion of an non-precision IAP beyond the Visual Descent Point. If you are in the clouds, you should never penetrate the OIS on departure. On arrival, the VDP assures obstacle clearance with a normal approach to landing. ILS only approaches do not have a VDP depicted so there is no OIS to ...


1

In ICAO DOC 9905 (Required Navigation Performance Authorization Required Procedure Design Manual) you can find the following definition in Chapter 2.1 RNP APCH versus RNP AR APCH 2.1.1 RNP APCH is defined as an RNP approach procedure that requires a lateral TSE of +/-1 NM in the initial, intermediate and missed approach segments (MAS) and a lateral ...


1

No, a tower controller does not need to have an aircraft in sight in order to issue a landing clearance. There may be some variations upon this basic rule depending on jurisdiction. I am speaking from the context of FAA jurisdiction. I fly in and out of multiple airports that are not radar equipped. I routinely receive landing clearance before the tower ...


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