30

The vertical stabilizer is on the centerline. The line you see is not the centerline, it's the overlap of the aluminum sheets that form the circular fuselage. (Source) (Source) Non-aviation example of what I mean by overlap and centerline. On the other hand, propeller aircraft may employ different methods to counter the left turning tendencies. Tail ...


27

You're looking at a typical metal wing's innards with stringers (small lateral stiffeners made from aluminum angle) riveted to aluminum sheet, and the remnants of wing ribs also attached. The colour is zinc-chromate primer which ranges in colour from bright green (epoxy zinc chromate), to olive drab, to, that that case, yellow/brown. There is no wood there. ...


22

Short answer: To create a funnel for all the air streaming towards the fuselage. Slightly longer answer: Air approaching a swept wing will be accelerated towards the area with the lowest pressure and, therefore, will be sucked towards the wing's center. The center itself will show a markedly different pressure distribution over chord than the two-dimensional ...


18

This answer assumes that "GA" means "little piston planes." Aluminum (or non-fabric) aircraft tend to "hold up" better against the elements. I would not store a Stinson 108 outdoors but would not think twice about storing a 172 (or Cirrus) on an open air tiedown. The fabric covering requires a great deal of care compared to the metal (or composite) skin ...


14

That's cabin insulation - probably fiberglass. It's not always in green bags (blankets), and not always fiberglass, but some kind of insulation is necessary to help control temperature and reduce cabin noise (air moving over the fuselage is REALLY loud). Here are some other photos of different types of insulation: Basic fiberglass with a plastic backing, ...


12

Information on PPRUNE (without a source) says: 328 per side (102 x AN4-7A & 226 x AN410A bolts to be exact). I was able to verify the 328 figure from various books. Each wing of a DC-3 transport plane is fastened on with 328 nuts and bolts. Unless the stress and strain are distributed equally, some of the bolts shear off. The answer was found in ...


12

Though 'getting on/off aircraft through landing gear' is a favorite trope in movies, it is practically impossible in most of the modern airliners. Airliners are pressurized, and as a result, the cabin (and cockpit) area is in reality one big cylinder, cut off from everything else. So, no accessibility from the landing gear area. For example, the following ...


10

I was a regular at Oshkosh during Rutan's heyday in the 70s, and had a chum that was building a Dragonfly, which used the same construction method. Rutan's mold-less process is only suitable to one-off projects, like prototype parts, or amateur built airplanes. It's a sub-optimal process from an engineering perspective because it is very time consuming to ...


9

This should be understood as a supplement to @acpilot's excellent answer. All his points are valid and correct, and I just want to add a few more. Fabric covering is easy to build and hard to maintain. In the early days, when engines were heavy and less powerful, a wooden airframe with fabric covering was the fastest, lightest and easiest way to get ...


9

You marked in the comments that you are interested in the process of attaching. Therefore I'd like to provide you some more information. I have done some sketches numbered I) to III) for the Wing Root and another sketch for the horizontal stabilizer installation. 1. Wing Root Joint: Generally, there are many ways to connect a wing to the fuselage. The most ...


9

No, Boeing didn't do that. I asked their assembly plant tour to confirm or deny this, when I found a report that around 2010 some visitors heard this from a tour guide. On 2020 Nov 3 they replied: Hello, Thank you for contacting us with your inquiry. This is a popular urban myth, there are no records or any other evidence that this was done at Boeing. ...


8

Building an airframe did not change all that much in the jet age. Assuming you are talking about all aluminum aircraft the power plant is somewhat abstracted from the equation in terms of a production line. Here is the assembly line that Lockheed had for the early P-80 Jets (not all that different than their propellor counter parts). This picture would ...


8

With very select exceptions like the Su-34, and the A-10 if you consider it modern, they are not. Even in these cases only the pilot and a few critical parts are armored. Most of the aircraft's skin offers no meaningful resistance even to small arms. Extensive armor coverage that could withstand modern air-to-air or surface-to-air weapons simply isn't ...


7

This should be a Zeppelin. You said "aircraft", not "airplane", so lighter-than-air systems qualify also. Already the model submitted with the patent application in 1895 (yes, back then the inventor had to demonstrate that the invention is actually implementable!) showed several cylindrical sections, akin to a train of cylindrical balloons. The final patent ...


6

Radar mounting bulkhead: this is the vertical plate to which the radar antenna is attached. This is just a structure. Strobe light/anti-collision beacon: this is a bright light that flashes to make the aircraft more visible and prevent collisions. Engine bleed-air primary heat exchanger: this is a heat exchanger for bleed air from the engine. Bleed air ...


6

2000s, 6000s, and 7000s series alloy are very common for aircraft construction over the past 8 decades of metal aircraft design. Boeing aircraft are largely manufactured from 2000s series aluminum alloy.


6

For a homebuilt a static load test is required. Whereas a full certification would require a loading to 1.5 the maximum load, this factor is reduced for experimental aircraft to 1.0. But performed it must be nonetheless. For the test the aircraft is propped up upside down and sandbags (or water bottles) are placed on the wing until the calculated load is ...


6

Regarding holding onto the landing gear as the aircraft takes off, or otherwise getting into the wheel well, stowaways do try this on a regular basis. As other answers have said though, they then find that there's no access through to the rest of the plane, so they're stuck in the wheel well. At cruising altitude (above 30,000ft) the air temperature will ...


6

They are flown to their customers by either Boeing or pilots from the given airline. As for the Boeing factory its self, the Everett Factory users Paine Field as their runway. If you look closely there is a bridge that crosses the highway and connects the plant to the main ramp of the airport. This appears to be painted for car traffic but is also used for ...


6

On lighter aircraft, the wings are sometimes designed to be detachable for ease of transport: To achieve this, the wing spar has a stump at the inboard edge that is inserted into a hole in the either the fuselage or the next inner wing section. Once inserted, they are locked to the fuselage (and often to the wing on the other side) using large metal pins. ...


5

Like all complex artifacts, aircraft primary structure design is an iterative process. It begins with aerodynamicists designing the Master Surfaces of the Aerodynamic Envelope. Structures designers then cope with the space requirements thereafter, although compromises between multiple design teams will often be needed. A few things will be known. We will ...


5

The system may have many names depending on detailed configuration, but it is basically a mixed reality assisted manufacturing system. One example is described in this pdf document. The system consists of at least one projector that projects a predesigned guidline on a workpiece, to assist human workforce in their tasks. Additional hardware may include ...


4

Aeroelasticity is the elastic deformation of a structure caused by aerodynamic forces. An example is the flexing of a wing. The change of the shape of the structure has in turn an effect on the aerodynamics. Aeroelastic effects can be static, such as the upward deflection of a wing under the influence of lift, or dynamic. In the static case, the ...


4

The C-Series has a carbon wing box. The fuselage is aluminum but is a newer fairly exotic aluminum lithium alloy that is a bit lighter than 2024. The decision to go with aluminum for the fuselage was mostly development and manufacturing cost (a fuselage requires a massive autoclave and it's development is fairly high risk the first time around) and ease of ...


4

There are some all-composite business jets, like the newest Bombardier Learjet. The design choice is about trade-offs in manufacturing: supply chain, number to be built, available tools and workers, legal certification (old methods are considered proven so require far less testing data), existing techniques, cost/percentage of build flaws, market price of ...


4

I've boldfaced the parts of this abstract that answer the question. Abstract: Ever since the advent of fiber reinforced polymer materials in the field of Aerospace, Metal-FRP stacks started to gain importance due to their superior fatigue performance, phenomenal low weight and good specific strength. However the machining, specially drilling these multi ...


3

The answer depends on the wing loading of the aircraft. Human powered aircraft need to have a low wing loading so very little energy is needed to sustain flight. Consequently, the loads on the single structural members are low, too, so you can get away with foam-only ribs. Next, the answer depends on the function of the rib. If it sits at some mid-span ...


3

The foam is used to take small shearloads and support the primary structural element in absorbing tension and compression loads. The wood rib has the primary compression and tension members in the capstrip, with the diagonals absorbing shear loads, converted to compression and tension loads along the legs of the truss. On a foam rib, if it is a standalone ...


3

Some are. Most notably the A-10 Warthog carries about 1200 LBS of titanium armor up front to protect the cockpit. A lot of modern fighters have self sealing fuel tanks which is a type of bulletproofing in a sense. It allows the airframes fuel tanks to be hit, but unaffected by bullet fire. Broadly speaking additional armor adds weight which is generally ...


3

Fighter aircraft usually have their tailplane connected to the fuselage with a single pivot joint, as visible in this F-15 drawing: Passenger aircraft often have a horizontal tailplane which is a single part, and as such, the entire stabilizer is being trimmed by an actuator around a pivot, as can be seen in this 727 drawing. The actuating system is ...


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