30

The vertical stabilizer is on the centerline. The line you see is not the centerline, it's the overlap of the aluminum sheets that form the circular fuselage. (Source) (Source) Non-aviation example of what I mean by overlap and centerline. On the other hand, propeller aircraft may employ different methods to counter the left turning tendencies. Tail ...


19

Short answer: To create a funnel for all the air streaming towards the fuselage. Slightly longer answer: Air approaching a swept wing will be accelerated towards the area with the lowest pressure and, therefore, will be sucked towards the wing's center. The center itself will show a markedly different pressure distribution over chord than the two-...


16

This answer assumes that "GA" means "little piston planes." Aluminum (or non-fabric) aircraft tend to "hold up" better against the elements. I would not store a Stinson 108 outdoors but would not think twice about storing a 172 (or Cirrus) on an open air tiedown. The fabric covering requires a great deal of care compared to the metal (or composite) skin ...


14

That's cabin insulation - probably fiberglass. It's not always in green bags (blankets), and not always fiberglass, but some kind of insulation is necessary to help control temperature and reduce cabin noise (air moving over the fuselage is REALLY loud). Here are some other photos of different types of insulation: Basic fiberglass with a plastic backing, ...


12

Information on PPRUNE (without a source) says: 328 per side (102 x AN4-7A & 226 x AN410A bolts to be exact). I was able to verify the 328 figure from various books. Each wing of a DC-3 transport plane is fastened on with 328 nuts and bolts. Unless the stress and strain are distributed equally, some of the bolts shear off. The answer was found in ...


12

Though 'getting on/off aircraft through landing gear' is a favorite trope in movies, it is practically impossible in most of the modern airliners. Airliners are pressurized, and as a result, the cabin (and cockpit) area is in reality one big cylinder, cut off from everything else. So, no accessibility from the landing gear area. For example, the following ...


9

The main wing comes in two pieces, left and right wings, and they are bolted to the lower center fuselage section, which also houses the center fuel tank. Fuselage/wing fillets (fairings) are added after. The frame you captured shows the rear wing—the horizontal stabilizer. It is slid in and then bolted, more precisely attached to the mechanism that moves ...


9

This should be understood as a supplement to @acpilot's excellent answer. All his points are valid and correct, and I just want to add a few more. Fabric covering is easy to build and hard to maintain. In the early days, when engines were heavy and less powerful, a wooden airframe with fabric covering was the fastest, lightest and easiest way to get ...


8

Building an airframe did not change all that much in the jet age. Assuming you are talking about all aluminum aircraft the power plant is somewhat abstracted from the equation in terms of a production line. Here is the assembly line that Lockheed had for the early P-80 Jets (not all that different than their propellor counter parts). This picture would ...


8

With very select exceptions like the Su-34, and the A-10 if you consider it modern, they are not. Even in these cases only the pilot and a few critical parts are armored. Most of the aircraft's skin offers no meaningful resistance even to small arms. Extensive armor coverage that could withstand modern air-to-air or surface-to-air weapons simply isn't ...


7

This should be a Zeppelin. You said "aircraft", not "airplane", so lighter-than-air systems qualify also. Already the model submitted with the patent application in 1895 (yes, back then the inventor had to demonstrate that the invention is actually implementable!) showed several cylindrical sections, akin to a train of cylindrical balloons. The final patent ...


7

The answer of ymb1 already gives you some good answer, but you marked in the comments, that you are also interested in the process of attaching. Therefore I'd like to provide you some more information and did some sketches number I) to III) for the Wing Root (at the end of the section) and another sketch for the horizontal stabilizer installation. 1) Wing ...


6

They are flown to their customers by either Boeing or pilots from the given airline. As for the Boeing factory its self, the Everett Factory users Paine Field as their runway. If you look closely there is a bridge that crosses the highway and connects the plant to the main ramp of the airport. This appears to be painted for car traffic but is also used for ...


6

On lighter aircraft, the wings are sometimes designed to be detachable for ease of transport: To achieve this, the wing spar has a stump at the inboard edge that is inserted into a hole in the either the fuselage or the next inner wing section. Once inserted, they are locked to the fuselage (and often to the wing on the other side) using large metal pins. ...


6

Regarding holding onto the landing gear as the aircraft takes off, or otherwise getting into the wheel well, stowaways do try this on a regular basis. As other answers have said though, they then find that there's no access through to the rest of the plane, so they're stuck in the wheel well. At cruising altitude (above 30,000ft) the air temperature will ...


6

2000s, 6000s, and 7000s series alloy are very common for aircraft construction over the past 8 decades of metal aircraft design. Boeing aircraft are largely manufactured from 2000s series aluminum alloy.


6

For a homebuilt a static load test is required. Whereas a full certification would require a loading to 1.5 the maximum load, this factor is reduced for experimental aircraft to 1.0. But performed it must be nonetheless. For the test the aircraft is propped up upside down and sandbags (or water bottles) are placed on the wing until the calculated load is ...


6

Radar mounting bulkhead: this is the vertical plate to which the radar antenna is attached. This is just a structure. Strobe light/anti-collision beacon: this is a bright light that flashes to make the aircraft more visible and prevent collisions. Engine bleed-air primary heat exchanger: this is a heat exchanger for bleed air from the engine. Bleed air ...


5

Like all complex artifacts, aircraft primary structure design is an iterative process. It begins with aerodynamicists designing the Master Surfaces of the Aerodynamic Envelope. Structures designers then cope with the space requirements thereafter, although compromises between multiple design teams will often be needed. A few things will be known. We will ...


4

Aeroelasticity is the elastic deformation of a structure caused by aerodynamic forces. An example is the flexing of a wing. The change of the shape of the structure has in turn an effect on the aerodynamics. Aeroelastic effects can be static, such as the upward deflection of a wing under the influence of lift, or dynamic. In the static case, the ...


4

The C-Series has a carbon wing box. The fuselage is aluminum but is a newer fairly exotic aluminum lithium alloy that is a bit lighter than 2024. The decision to go with aluminum for the fuselage was mostly development and manufacturing cost (a fuselage requires a massive autoclave and it's development is fairly high risk the first time around) and ease of ...


4

There are some all-composite business jets, like the newest Bombardier Learjet. The design choice is about trade-offs in manufacturing: supply chain, number to be built, available tools and workers, legal certification (old methods are considered proven so require far less testing data), existing techniques, cost/percentage of build flaws, market price of ...


4

I've boldfaced the parts of this abstract that answer the question. Abstract: Ever since the advent of fiber reinforced polymer materials in the field of Aerospace, Metal-FRP stacks started to gain importance due to their superior fatigue performance, phenomenal low weight and good specific strength. However the machining, specially drilling these multi ...


3

Some are. Most notably the A-10 Warthog carries about 1200 LBS of titanium armor up front to protect the cockpit. A lot of modern fighters have self sealing fuel tanks which is a type of bulletproofing in a sense. It allows the airframes fuel tanks to be hit, but unaffected by bullet fire. Broadly speaking additional armor adds weight which is generally ...


3

Fighter aircraft usually have their tailplane connected to the fuselage with a single pivot joint, as visible in this F-15 drawing: Passenger aircraft often have a horizontal tailplane which is a single part, and as such, the entire stabilizer is being trimmed by an actuator around a pivot, as can be seen in this 727 drawing. The actuating system is ...


3

I’m a retired FAA licensed A&P mechanic. The wings on the B727 are held on, in part by so called “bottle pins” if memories serves there are two on each wing roughly the dimensions of old fashioned glass quart milk bottles. I’m only “assuming” there are similarities to how the B737max wings are also held in place. Again I’m assuming that the “pickle fork” ...


3

Final assembly usually takes place at a location with its own runways or collocated with an airport, so once airframe assembly is complete, the aircraft undergoes its final inspections, test and acceptance flight and is then simply flown to a location specified by the customer, typically a hub or maintenance base. To use the Everett facility as an example, ...


2

In general the customer sends their own pilots out to take delivery of the airplane. Usually they are immediately pressed into service. When I was out at the Everett facility in summer 2000, we had customers who would pick up a 777 at KPAE, then make the short flight south to Sea Tac Intl right to the gate and immediately fuel and load it for a ...


2

The stabilizer is hinged at the quarter-chord point of the tail surface and has a second, movable attachment point. This second point can be moved up and down, generally by turning a spindle on which a nut rides which moves the second attachment point. A300 stabilizer root (source) On this picture (sorry, was the best I could find now) you see the ...


2

Right now I'm only imagining two kinds, an airframe factory and an engine factory. The plane's skin needs to be built, as well as all the electronics, all the cables, gauges, radios, guns, missiles, electric wiring, pumps, radar, radar receivers, ejection seats, the plexiglas canopy and windshield, the rubber wheels, etc, etc, ad nauseum. Hundreds of ...


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