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96

First of all, the landing should be in the touchdown zone. Often I see pilots try to achieve a very smooth landing but floating far out of the touchdown zone before touching terra firma. Then they have to brake hard and taxi of at the far end. There are no points for landing outside the touchdown zone, even if it is the smoothest landing imaginable. In many ...


47

A perfect landing is seen as one where the contact with the runway is almost imperceptible. No, the perfect landing is firm. The aircraft should touch down with a not strong, but still perceptible jolt. The reasons are: Weaker initial contact between wheels and surface means the wheels take longer to spin up. The longer skidding abrades more rubber and on ...


46

Bouncing a landing is neither intentional nor desirable. There are several reasons why a student pilot might bounce, but for a professional pilot, it's most likely related to wind gusts, which are a challenge no matter how much training and experience you have. Gusts are by their nature unpredictable, and if one hits the plane right as it's touching down, ...


41

In flight mode the stick commands a load-factor. Which means it will be impossible to flare the aircraft, because as you pull on the stick, you'll be commanding a positive g-load. Because of this the Airbus has a flare mode which activates at 50' RA. At 50' the pitch angle is stored (memorized). At 30' the aircraft commands a 2° nose down (it takes 8 ...


39

X-Plane is a much truer simulation of flying than that flight game Microsoft used to make. In fact, when coupled with certified hardware and a CFI, X-Plane can power a sim that you can actually log FTD time in. Since you ask about airline flying for your comparison, there is a lot more to that than just the flying. An airline pilot is, with few exceptions, ...


39

Short-field take-off techniques often achieve a shorter ground run by hurting climb performance. While having more runway is great for safety, planning to use less of the runway is not a huge benefit: you always plan to have enough runway left if you need to abort during the take-off roll. It's much better to have more height quickly in the climb-out: it ...


38

It is a soft field technique but is generally applied on hard surfaces for the sake of the aircraft. There are a few main reasons; Take stress of the nose wheel and nose gear assembly which is a bit more fragile than the main gear assembly. This is particularly true in aircraft equipped with a steerable nose wheel like the Cherokee (or in retracts). ...


37

There are a few ways that pilots are aware of potentially turbulent areas. Eyesight The most obvious way is just by looking outside and observing the sky. Large billowing clouds, called cumulus clouds, indicated pockets of unstable air (the clouds are rising because the air under them is as well). If the pilots must fly through these clouds then its a ...


37

Unless you're planning on trucking a seaplane out of where you have landed it, you usually don't need to worry about slowing down on landing since you can land in a far shorter distance than you can take off. In other words, the landing water run is far shorter than the takeoff water run. If you do want to shorten the water run or reduce your taxi speed, ...


34

For 747-100 and -200 aircraft at 35,000 ft and above, you can do it, but it's hard to keep the airplane within 100 feet of the assigned altitude, and you typically can't do that (or at least I couldn't) without practice. 200 foot altitude excursions were the norm when I first took control if I had not done it for a while. For the few first officers that ...


33

are there other technical or regulatory explanations? A few points to add to the excellent answers already given: Different aircraft models vary widely insofar as getting smooth landings. If you fly a lot, keep track of the aircraft type and what kind of landing you experience. Over time and many landings, you may see a difference. In my own experience as ...


32

Bounces are bad news on airliners because you are becoming airborne again just as the lift dumpers pop out, which makes the second touchdown even more exciting and often leads to hard landing inspections, and in extreme cases broken gears. The lift dump spoilers are supposed to limit bouncing tendency, but if you come down hard enough there is so much ...


27

The other answers are spot on, but I'd like to address one part, which is the "later down the runway." It is by no means "later." (YouTube) In the frame grab above of a 747-400 (taken at 1:12), the captain had already called out "takeoff thrust," the TO/GA system had set the pre-programmed thrust setting, and the 747 wasn't even at the piano keys. (...


26

Most of the time the turbulence we experience is termed "chop", which is akin to what you experience on a boat on the lake -- bumps but no real altitude deviations. With altitude deviations we'll call it "turbulence". Within these broad categories we'll qualify them with "light", "moderate", "severe" and "extreme" in reports to ATC and other aircraft. ...


24

Smoke is a real challenge on an aircraft. The first course of action, other than extinguishing the source of the smoke, if possible, is to evacuate the smoke. In some aircraft windows can be opened. Some have a system to vent the smoke outside. In the crash of SAA flight 295 it was mentioned that the smoke evacuation procedure on the 747 Combi was to open ...


24

Objects on the ground are negligible because the radio altimeter is not designed nor used to such high precision. There are several uses of the radio altimeter. The first one is for timing the flare during the last portion of the landing. Since the flare maneuver starts after the aircraft has crossed the runway threshold, at this time the aircraft is over ...


23

I know nothing about this topic but it's quite an interesting one so I did some Googling and found a detailed Airbus document called "Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes". It includes the following information: All brake manufacturers highlight the fact that carbon wear is heavily affected by brake temperature This is completely different from steel ...


22

Yes, the solution to start APU was important. The ditching procedure directs the use of maximum available slats and flaps for the final approach and touchdown (source, chapter 10.3). This is not possible without APU, as Airbus A320-214 cannot move flaps if only powered by RAT (only blue hydraulic line, same source, chapter 9.3). The running APU adds the ...


22

It's not how high the wing is off the ground, but the angle between the main landing gear when compressed and the tip of the wing, which with the wing dihedral makes it even higher off the ground – on the MD-80 that's 2.6 m (8'7"). This will be the roll angle limit. It's for that reason, unlike smaller high-wing general aviation planes, big jet-liners don't ...


22

I can't give a 747 specific answer, but generally, on some engines it's desirable to let the engines stabilize at a moderate power setting, with the N1 equalized there, before advancing them to TOGA thrust. It helps to make sure the engines will all get to TO thrust at the same time, which is important to avoid yawing motions early in the roll. The crew may ...


21

As it relates to large aircraft, a hard landing means something very specific, defined in EASA CS 25 §473 and in its FAR equivalent, which is an event in which the aircraft design parameters may have been exceeded with compromise to its structural integrity. The event may be reported by the pilots and/or detected by the aircraft's ECAM / AHM and possibly ...


20

All those answers are pretty wrong. One eye..Can't read the instruments.. Aviation ANVS like the ANVS 9's are dual tube. You focus them to your liking,individually for each eye! I personally get 20/20 with them and you mount them high and simply look under them to read the instruments! I have over 7,000 hours of single pilot NVG. They make things safer, ...


20

Assuming that you're asking about intercepting the glideslope from above rather than the localizer, the answer is that it is definitely NOT recommended. There are at least two significant problems if you do this. First, is the fact that at high vertical angles there can be false glideslopes. Looking at the diagram below, if you're coming at the glideslope ...


19

The landing gear is indeed designed to cope with crabbed crosswind landings. The recommendation is to avoid crab on landing however in severe crosswind conditions it is sometimes impossible to decrab completely without introducing excessive bank. Therefore some residual crab has to be allowed. Airbus recommends less then 5 degrees of residual crab on ...


19

"Most challenging" is a matter of opinion, but if I were to pick, it is probably the 180 degree turn. The purpose of the maneuver is to turn the aircraft around and face the opposite direction. The technique is to position the aircraft to one side of the runway (taxiways are generally too narrow for this), then apply maximum steering angle, minimum thrust ...


19

Aerodynamic slowing is more effective than wheel-braking at touchdown speeds, and aerodynamic directional control is more effective than pedal steering until you decelerate enough that you can't keep the nosewheel in the air. If you're flying a differential-steering (or "brake-steering") airplane, this is even more important. Using this technique, you ...


19

Mentour Pilot talks about this in his video. The answer is Stabilization. It takes an engine several seconds to spool up from idle to TO/GA. That's long enough that the engines don't get there at the same time. The difference can be enough to make asymmetrical thrust yaw the airplane on a slick runway. Whereas, spooling up from mid-thrust to TO/GA ...


18

The amount of time spent on the brakes is the most important thing which dictates the wear of carbon brakes, not the amount of energy put into them (which is the case with steel brakes). By braking harder, you are spending less time on the brakes in total, which means that you will have less wear on the brakes. Let's just imaging you wear 1/10000th of the ...


18

First off as the pilot in command, you are free to do this if you feel it is the safe way to operate the aircraft in a given situation even if runway does not dictate it. According to the FAA's handbook the short field take off requires a high degree of control of the aircraft, The pilot should be aware that, in some airplanes, a deviation of 5 knots ...


18

There is no difference aerodynamically. The only difference is in intention and presence of the wind. The airplane does not care about the ground track, all it feels is the movement through the air. Both side- and forward-slip make the airplane fly slightly sideways through the air, somewhere in the direction between nose and downwards pointing wing. If ...


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