96

First of all, the landing should be in the touchdown zone. Often I see pilots try to achieve a very smooth landing but floating far out of the touchdown zone before touching terra firma. Then they have to brake hard and taxi of at the far end. There are no points for landing outside the touchdown zone, even if it is the smoothest landing imaginable. In many ...


46

A perfect landing is seen as one where the contact with the runway is almost imperceptible. No, the perfect landing is firm. The aircraft should touch down with a not strong, but still perceptible jolt. The reasons are: Weaker initial contact between wheels and surface means the wheels take longer to spin up. The longer skidding abrades more rubber and on ...


46

Bouncing a landing is neither intentional nor desirable. There are several reasons why a student pilot might bounce, but for a professional pilot, it's most likely related to wind gusts, which are a challenge no matter how much training and experience you have. Gusts are by their nature unpredictable, and if one hits the plane right as it's touching down, ...


43

In flight mode the stick commands a load-factor. Which means it will be impossible to flare the aircraft, because as you pull on the stick, you'll be commanding a positive g-load. Because of this the Airbus has a flare mode which activates at 50' RA. At 50' the pitch angle is stored (memorized). At 30' the aircraft commands a 2° nose down (it takes 8 ...


40

X-Plane is a much truer simulation of flying than that flight game Microsoft used to make. In fact, when coupled with certified hardware and a CFI, X-Plane can power a sim that you can actually log FTD time in. Since you ask about airline flying for your comparison, there is a lot more to that than just the flying. An airline pilot is, with few exceptions, ...


39

Short-field take-off techniques often achieve a shorter ground run by hurting climb performance. While having more runway is great for safety, planning to use less of the runway is not a huge benefit: you always plan to have enough runway left if you need to abort during the take-off roll. It's much better to have more height quickly in the climb-out: it ...


38

It is a soft field technique but is generally applied on hard surfaces for the sake of the aircraft. There are a few main reasons; Take stress of the nose wheel and nose gear assembly which is a bit more fragile than the main gear assembly. This is particularly true in aircraft equipped with a steerable nose wheel like the Cherokee (or in retracts). ...


37

There are a few ways that pilots are aware of potentially turbulent areas. Eyesight The most obvious way is just by looking outside and observing the sky. Large billowing clouds, called cumulus clouds, indicated pockets of unstable air (the clouds are rising because the air under them is as well). If the pilots must fly through these clouds then its a ...


37

Unless you're planning on trucking a seaplane out of where you have landed it, you usually don't need to worry about slowing down on landing since you can land in a far shorter distance than you can take off. In other words, the landing water run is far shorter than the takeoff water run. If you do want to shorten the water run or reduce your taxi speed, ...


34

For 747-100 and -200 aircraft at 35,000 ft and above, you can do it, but it's hard to keep the airplane within 100 feet of the assigned altitude, and you typically can't do that (or at least I couldn't) without practice. 200 foot altitude excursions were the norm when I first took control if I had not done it for a while. For the few first officers that ...


34

are there other technical or regulatory explanations? A few points to add to the excellent answers already given: Different aircraft models vary widely insofar as getting smooth landings. If you fly a lot, keep track of the aircraft type and what kind of landing you experience. Over time and many landings, you may see a difference. In my own experience as ...


33

I have some time in a Seminole. The issue with twins that causes most of the difficulty is the speed brake effect of two propellers when you pull the power off and they go to full fine pitch. It's like you deployed a couple of drogue chutes, and makes your speed decay very rapidly and you will find yourself sinking quickly and needing large pitch inputs to ...


32

Bounces are bad news on airliners because you are becoming airborne again just as the lift dumpers pop out, which makes the second touchdown even more exciting and often leads to hard landing inspections, and in extreme cases broken gears. The lift dump spoilers are supposed to limit bouncing tendency, but if you come down hard enough there is so much ...


32

I used to be an avionics instructor teaching maintenance type courses for the F/A-18. I have plenty of hours flying in the simulator where I would get the students to conduct navigation flights to familiarise themselves with the operation of the instruments as well as flight controls. I can confirm 100% that the rudder is barely touched once airborne. There ...


31

Not storms, but there is a concept called "Pressure Pattern Flying" where you plan routing to stay in favourable circulation around Highs and Lows, to the extent that deviations to follow the circulation flow and stay in tailwinds can get you there sooner than going straight. To take advantage of this you need to be going fast enough and with the ...


29

The instinct drilled into a pilot's head from the beginning as the primary response is "lower the nose" to lower AOA. If you learn in a glider, that's the only option, so it's easy to drill the instinct into peoples' heads (one reason that glider training before power is so good for pilot skills later). In a power plane, it's lower the nose and add as much ...


27

The other answers are spot on, but I'd like to address one part, which is the "later down the runway." It is by no means "later." (YouTube) In the frame grab above of a 747-400 (taken at 1:12), the captain had already called out "takeoff thrust," the TO/GA system had set the pre-programmed thrust setting, and the 747 wasn't even at the piano keys. (...


26

Most of the time the turbulence we experience is termed "chop", which is akin to what you experience on a boat on the lake -- bumps but no real altitude deviations. With altitude deviations we'll call it "turbulence". Within these broad categories we'll qualify them with "light", "moderate", "severe" and "extreme" in reports to ATC and other aircraft. ...


24

I have no hard data answers to your questions. Perhaps others will. I can, though, offer some personal observations. My last two jobs were at 747 carriers. At the first we had two weeks on, two weeks off. At the second, we had 12 days off a month, which, with a little seniority, you could arrange to have as a block. For me, the first thing to go was my ...


24

Smoke is a real challenge on an aircraft. The first course of action, other than extinguishing the source of the smoke, if possible, is to evacuate the smoke. In some aircraft windows can be opened. Some have a system to vent the smoke outside. In the crash of SAA flight 295 it was mentioned that the smoke evacuation procedure on the 747 Combi was to open ...


24

Objects on the ground are negligible because the radio altimeter is not designed nor used to such high precision. There are several uses of the radio altimeter. The first one is for timing the flare during the last portion of the landing. Since the flare maneuver starts after the aircraft has crossed the runway threshold, at this time the aircraft is over ...


24

This approach of using an engine is called pulse and glide. It generally works because each engine has an optimal power setting at which it converts fuel into power most efficiently. If the most efficient power is higher than is required, something should be done to accumulate and later use the excess energy. Raising the vehicle up looks like a solution, ...


23

I know nothing about this topic but it's quite an interesting one so I did some Googling and found a detailed Airbus document called "Proper Operation of Carbon Brakes". It includes the following information: All brake manufacturers highlight the fact that carbon wear is heavily affected by brake temperature This is completely different from steel ...


22

Yes, the solution to start APU was important. The ditching procedure directs the use of maximum available slats and flaps for the final approach and touchdown (source, chapter 10.3). This is not possible without APU, as Airbus A320-214 cannot move flaps if only powered by RAT (only blue hydraulic line, same source, chapter 9.3). The running APU adds the ...


22

There is no difference aerodynamically. The only difference is in intention and presence of the wind. The airplane does not care about the ground track, all it feels is the movement through the air. Both side- and forward-slip make the airplane fly slightly sideways through the air, somewhere in the direction between nose and downwards pointing wing. If ...


22

It's not how high the wing is off the ground, but the angle between the main landing gear when compressed and the tip of the wing, which with the wing dihedral makes it even higher off the ground – on the MD-80 that's 2.6 m (8'7"). This will be the roll angle limit. It's for that reason, unlike smaller high-wing general aviation planes, big jet-liners ...


22

I can't give a 747 specific answer, but generally, on some engines it's desirable to let the engines stabilize at a moderate power setting, with the N1 equalized there, before advancing them to TOGA thrust. It helps to make sure the engines will all get to TO thrust at the same time, which is important to avoid yawing motions early in the roll. The crew may ...


21

Assuming that you're asking about intercepting the glideslope from above rather than the localizer, the answer is that it is definitely NOT recommended. There are at least two significant problems if you do this. First, is the fact that at high vertical angles there can be false glideslopes. Looking at the diagram below, if you're coming at the glideslope ...


21

As it relates to large aircraft, a hard landing means something very specific, defined in EASA CS 25 §473 and in its FAR equivalent, which is an event in which the aircraft design parameters may have been exceeded with compromise to its structural integrity. The event may be reported by the pilots and/or detected by the aircraft's ECAM / AHM and possibly ...


20

All those answers are pretty wrong. One eye..Can't read the instruments.. Aviation ANVS like the ANVS 9's are dual tube. You focus them to your liking,individually for each eye! I personally get 20/20 with them and you mount them high and simply look under them to read the instruments! I have over 7,000 hours of single pilot NVG. They make things safer, ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible