100

Historically, Gatwick had only one runway (08R/26L) with a taxiway to the north, but this obviously would cause problems if that runway was out of use for any reason - emergency, scheduled maintenance, etc. In 1979, the taxiway was upgraded so that it could be used as a runway when the main runway was out of use. Since this used existing infrastructure, the ...


19

While ILS is precise enough to guide the aircraft precisely onto the runway, it is only so precise in the immediate vicinity of the runway. The instrument measures angular divergence from the runway axis. So while the one dot offset is just a few metres over threshold, it is much more at the point where the aircraft normally intercept the localizer, which ...


19

SFO makes use of simultaneous close parallel approach operations. This allows higher density operations than would otherwise be possible for runways spaced so close, but to make use of these ops, in SFOs case, requires 1600 ft ceilings and 4 sm visibility due to the requirement that aircraft maintain visual contact during close parallel operations. It does ...


17

Based on my current navigation database (AIRAC 1909, valid from 2019-08-15), I found 7 US airports with 4 (or more) parallel runways: KATL (Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport): 5 parallel runways: 08L/26R, 08R/26L, 09L/27R, 09R/27L, 10/28 KDEN (Denver International Airport): 4 parallel runways: 16L/34R, 16R/34L, 17L/35R, 17R/35L and 2 more ...


16

The two ILS approaches on parallel runways will have a different ILS Localizer frequency. The pilots will select the correct approach from the charts and then either manually tune in the correct frequency or (for more modern aircraft) select the approach in the flight management computer, which will then automatically tune the correct frequencies. Before ...


16

In the United States, the FAA has published Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, Airport Design , which includes standards and recommendations for airport design, including parallel runway separation. In summary, "For simultaneous landings and takeoffs using VFR, the minimum separation between centerlines of parallel runways is 700 feet (213 m)." For ...


15

The first thing I would point out is that LAX isn't going to be running simultaneous approaches on 24L and 24R or 25L and 25R. They'll select one of each of the parallel sets for the landing runways (typically the outer runways), and one of each for departing runways (typically the inner runways). For example, they might be landing on 25L and 24R and ...


14

In order to increase the number of operations that can be handled at a runway, you want them configured so as to allow "simultaneous independent approaches," which means that the 2 (or more) runways can be operational without the need to coordinate between them. The biggest factor is the distance between the two runways. The greater the distance between ...


13

"Because those are rules." ICAO Annex 14 (volume 1) provides the following guidance: 5.2.2.4 A runway designation marking shall consist of a two-digit number and on parallel runways shall be supplemented with a letter. On a single runway, dual parallel runways and triple parallel runways the two-digit number shall be the whole number nearest the one-...


11

I didn't see specific distances mentioned for the second part of the question. If the runways (centerline to centerline) are separated by at least 4300 feet (and other conditions are met), the airport can conduct simultaneous instrument approaches. If the runways are ate least 2500 feet apart, they can conduct staggered approaches (both runways in use, but ...


10

Based on ICAO doc9157 Aerodrome Design Manuel Part1 Runway, the minimum distance between centre lines of 2 parallel( or near-parallel ) runways is For Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) operation: 210m for category 3( runway length=1200m-1800m ) and category 4( runway length>1800m ) 150m for category 2( runway length=800m-1200m ) 120m for ...


8

With two runways, usually, one is dedicated to arrivals, and the other is dedicated to departures. That's the simplest way to handle separation -- only in-trail separation is involved. That's usually the way traffic is managed at Heathrow (LHR) and Dubai (DXB), two of the world's busiest two-parallel-runway airports. At Heathrow, when in a westward flow (...


8

What the text means is for triple simultaneous approaches for airports above 1,000 feet MSL, the FAA needs to conduct a case-by-case study. I.e. there is no automatic approval, yet. Also, but not related, for airports below 1,000 feet MSL, reduction in separation from 5,000 feet also requires a case-by-case study. ... impractical or the... I do think ...


8

There are only a handful of airports with 4+ parallel runways, and it's simpler to just accept them as exceptions than to add complexity to a naming system that works just fine for thousands of other airports around the world.


7

ILS works with radio waves, just like voice communications, or other navigation aids like VOR. This means a specific approach will use a specific frequency for its navigation signal. When the pilot is told what approach to expect, they will consult the chart for that procedure for the information needed to fly it. The top left corner of an ILS approach ...


6

Definition There are two key performance indicators that are used to measure the key performance area 'airport capacity': Peak arrival [declared] capacity Peak arrival throughput. What is the capacity of 2 near parallel runways? It depends if the 2 runways are operated in mixed or segregated mode. For the US, the two active runway case average value (...


6

Adding some more information to Bret's answer: Take a look at both ILS approach charts for Munich's runways 26L and 26R1, which are parallel runwawys. Both ILS instrument approaches terminate at the Missed Approach Point (MAPt). You can see from the charts that the Missed Approach for the northern runway 26R mandates a right turn to the MIKE (MIQ) NDB ...


6

There are a number of things to take into account: The distance between the runways; can they be operated as independent runways? This requires the centrelines to be more than 1035 meter apart. The traffic mix: is there constantly the same distance between landings or a large gap every now and then between a Heavy and a Medium that allows for one or two ...


6

That would no doubt depend on a lot of factors. Geometry for example. If the parallels are far enough apart there's no chance of a missed approach on one interfering with traffic on the other, you're a lot more flexible than when they're close together. Maybe you have noise abatement procedures that make the use of one of the runways for either landing or ...


5

Ideally runways do not intersect each other, and are all 4300 feet apart (laterally) to allow for simultaneous parallel instrument approaches. Denver is one such airport that meets all of this. (flydenver.com)


3

(YouTube) Much closer than 1 km at SFO. 1 km (~3,300') is not the minimum (see this illustration from the FAA AIM). The centerline spacing for parallel approaches can go as low as 750' (~230 m), a prime example is San Francisco: (Google Earth) Centerline spacing at SFO. But getting very close like at SFO requires special training, procedures, charts, ...


3

The simple answer seems to be for wake turbulence. This FAA document, ORDER JO 7110.308C, seems to say it is for wake turbulence reasons in para. 9: The geometry of the approach, as well as the lateral separation between the two approaches and prevailing local meteorological conditions, provide the wake turbulence avoidance necessary for reduced ...


3

The distance between the runways is not the issue. Some of them are just a hundred feet apart. The issue is that the closer the runways are, the more separation the planes using those runways must have, and the higher the IFR minima. For example, below is a picture of Oakland International. The two smaller GA runways (28L and 28R) at the top are close ...


2

It's not. Precise enough, that is. There's a point in the ILS landing process called "Minimums". At that point the pilots must see the runway or throttle up and go-around. Assuming they have seen the runway, they must be prepared to stick-fly it onto the centerline, and then keep it on the centerline during braking, against crosswinds (still pushing on ...


2

Also a big Problem exists at Zurich Airport where they must wait until a Landing on 14 is completed before they can give start-clearance on 16. This is due to the problem if an Airplane wants to land on 14 must make a go-around and the plane on 16 starts simultaneous, a possibility of a conflict can occur in mid-air. Edit clarification according to my ...


2

The scale is usually depicted on the chart. Just take a ruler and measure.


1

Here is the airport diagram for Denver International Airport, which has numerous parallel runways. I don't see any scale that could be used to measure distances. Looks to me that one would have to do some math based on the latitude/longitude information provided, and which is provided here so no interpolation is needed: https://www.airnav.com/airport/KDEN


1

It is usually to guarantee sufficient aircraft separation when visual separation is not available (bad weather). See also Why is one of two parallel runways sometimes closed in foggy weather? It can't be for aircraft separation, since an aircraft is allowed to land on a runway quite close to a parallel runway that is simultaneously departing an aircraft, ...


1

The 4300 ft separation is to allow wingtip vortices to dissipate from one runway to the next. This was posted about fairly recently. Why do simultaneous-ops parallel runways need to be so far apart?


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