3 votes

"w/o DME" minimums on DME required approach

DME is required equipment for the approach procedure, but note that the LOC DME minimums only apply to the Localizer DME functioning. The missed approach holding pattern references the VORTAC DME, ...
2 votes

How does an aircraft work with ILS

The Localizer signal is the horizontal (lateral) component of the full ILS signal (top portion of the image). It consists of two "lobes" which are amplitude modulated from each other, ...
2 votes

Crossing extended runway centerline while intercepting LOC

If you are instructed to intercept the localizer and/or cleared for the approach, that means you need to stay established on the localizer, i.e. keep the needle at leas than full deflection. It doesn’...
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