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8

There are plenty of smaller power planes that achieve those numbers; motorgliders. And motorgliders with L/Ds in the high teens and low 20s are pretty efficient cruisers. So the real question is; why aren't all light aircraft made to be like motorgliders? Well, motorgliders have their disadvantages. The long wing span is a problem fitting in on the ...


5

Thankfully, aerodynamics in the usual flight range is linear. Therefore, there is a gradient of lift over angle of attack and another one over the flap deflection angle. Both are constant over a range of maybe ±15° and can be combined. The angle of attack is referenced to the fixed part of the flight surface and the deflection angle to the moving part ...


2

A trailing-edge control surface, when it deflects, changes the camber of the overall airfoil. More camber means more lift, in whatever direction that airfoil is mounted. In your example, adding up elevator increases the horizontal stabilizer's camber, which increases the downward force it applies. Philosophically, "why" it does this is just, well, that's ...


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