Hot answers tagged

107

"Sterile Cockpit" refers to the concept that pilots should not discuss anything not related to the flight during certain phases of flight (often defined as below FL100). A passenger occupying the lavatory while the flight is on approach and passengers are supposed to be in their seats definitely does have an impact on the flight, so it does not fall under ...


61

"Sterile cockpit" doesn't mean abject silence; it means no idle chitchat. An issue relating to the safety of passengers is not idle chitchat, so it can be discussed at any time during the flight.


52

It depends on the airfield. Landing on grass is only recommended if the ground is maintained to a reasonable standard and clear of obstructions. Some airfields have grass strips maintained for that purpose, on others the grass has lights, wires and cables, or just lots of holes/ruts which will be far worse than the tarmac. Some airfields are only grass, ...


50

Most modern aircraft, which includes long range airliners since around 1970, all airliners since not much later, and basically anything with glass cockpit, do have very accurate accelerometers for all three axis, as part of the inertial reference system. They are important instruments for the autopilot, as they provide faster feedback on the effect of ...


44

The issue has always been human perception. Pilots are tasked with trying to make great landings. One way they do that is with peripheral vision. If the runway is too wide, they lose that extra clue on when to roundout and flare. They may flare too early and stall the aircraft too high above the runway. This perceptual clue is more important for ...


43

It just means "pay attention to what you are doing" until you are no longer moving. "Fly them" means "keep actively controlling the plane as if you were still in the air". Don't start daydreaming just because you're on the ground, in other words. Especially with the taildraggers of olden times; They are dynamically unstable turning-wise while rolling ...


37

It is absolutely normal, in fact it's rare for a pilot to have more than one hand on the yoke at any one time as it isn't required. Movies will often show pilots manhandling yokes with two hands, but that's just Hollywood. The only time two hands is required is when extra strength is needed on the controls, for instance a hydraulic failure. When landing a ...


36

Well, you're using land that is under the authority, or delegated authority, of somebody, so technically you need that authority's permission to use other than a designated landing area under the airport's license. Remember that there could be liability issues for the person responsible for the airport, completely aside from the physical suitability of the ...


33

I have some time in a Seminole. The issue with twins that causes most of the difficulty is the speed brake effect of two propellers when you pull the power off and they go to full fine pitch. It's like you deployed a couple of drogue chutes, and makes your speed decay very rapidly and you will find yourself sinking quickly and needing large pitch inputs to ...


32

The FAA covers this in the airplane flying manual quite nicely: Bouncing During Touchdown When the airplane contacts the ground with a sharp impact as the result of an improper attitude or an excessive rate of sink, it tends to bounce back into the air. Though the airplane’s tires and shock struts provide some springing action, the airplane does not bounce ...


27

At the instant of touchdown, any vertical kinetic energy the plane possesses must be absorbed by the landing gear, which thereafter must bear the entire weight of the plane. That kinetic energy depends on the sink rate and the plane's weight. The sink rate ideally will be zero at wheels down in a perfect world, but the gear is designed to accomodate a ...


23

Your scenario isn't really realistic, the turn coordinator and the AI are almost always on different sources of power to protect against this very event. The TC is almost always electrically driven because it gives an alternate source of information. A loss of an instrument or even a whole suite of instruments is something instrument rated pilots train for,...


20

the nose gear support strut contains a bearing which allows the nose wheel to swivel like a caster so the plane can turn on the ground. the nose wheel assembly itself is turned either via a hydraulic cylinder or a mechanical linkage connected to pads on the upper tips of the rudder pedals, or in some cases it freely turns on its own during the application of ...


19

Ground loops are costly. Fly them until they stop. What this literally says: Ground loops are costly. Fly the ground loops until they stop. What they meant to say: Ground loops are costly. Fly the airplane until it stops. Some background to why this was was important, not an answer to the question really... From personal experience (twice) it is ...


17

Maximum landing weight (MLW) limit exists primarily to cater for approach climb performance requirements (i.e. go-around requirement). As per 14CFR 25.1001: if the aircraft does not have a fuel dumping system, it must meet the all-engine-operating and one-engine-inoperative climb in the approach climb configuration at maximum takeoff weight. Otherwise, ...


16

GdD’s answer is accurate (up vote). My answer will be more step by step. The first thing you should do is recognize the issue. That might not be immediately easy depending on your aircraft and it’s electronics suite. If there is no visual and auditory alert, you will have to wait for the gyros to wind down to a certain extent. Immediately announce to ...


16

It means that even if you've put the wheels on the ground, you still need to "fly" the plane (meaning using control surfaces such as rudder/aileron/elevator) to maintain directional control until you've stopped.


15

Most (all?) modern airliners are, in fact, certified to land at any weight up to MTOW if necessary, but if they do land at more than MLW then a special "Overweight/Heavy Landing Inspection" must be performed before the aircraft can be used again. As this Boeing document states: Overweight landings are safe because of the conservatism required in the ...


15

Generally yes, since a 20kt crosswind requires considerably less crab angle on final at 135kt compared to 70kt. The CRJ900 has a demonstrated max crosswind component of 32 kt (If I had those conditions in a 172 and had to put it down, I think I'd just land across the runway). There is also a significant technique difference once you get above, say, 100,000 ...


15

In many many aircraft, from gliders and recreational planes to fighter jets and the whole Airbus fleet beyond the A300/A310 (meaning a very sizable chunk of the airline industry), control surfaces are moved using a stick and not a yoke; in such cases, using two hands is often not even an option. Also, you often need your other hand for something else (...


14

The hook is for emergency use at airports that have Runway Arrestor Systems. Lots of non-naval fighters have arrestor hooks for that purpose. Now, there is nothing stopping someone from landing an F-16 or any other fighter on a carrier deck and using its arrestor system, which works the same way. The main issues are the proficiency required to do it and ...


14

Flaps steepen the descent angle - in other words, you run the risk of falling short of the runway. So in a glide you keep the flaps up until you can be certain of making the landing point. Once the landing is guaranteed, you can then deploy gear as well as flap to slow down as much as possible - being aware that these actions will further reduce the gliding ...


14

Immediately after touchdown, the autobrakes will start to function, and may start applying the brakes depending on the aircraft's deceleration and the commanded deceleration. If the pilot hasn't yet started to deploy the thrust reversers, a go-around is still possible at this point. Advancing the throttles will disengage the autobrakes, and it's a normal ...


13

V1 is the speed at which you are committed to take-off, it doesn't mean you are off the ground. You can't retract the gear at V1 because you are still rolling on it heading down the runway. Vr is the speed at which you rotate the nose up to get into the air. Again you are still rolling down the runway with your nose in the air, you can't retract your wheels ...


13

What I was taught that this meant was ... ... because they could not communicate with you, but they wanted you to not land on this pass (interval a mess, crossing traffic, winds maybe wrong, a dozen other things that might crop up) it was more or less "the runway will be ready for you if you take another lap in the pattern." This also gives them a bit of ...


13

As a pilot, switching from my training on a 50 ft runway to landing frequently on a 150 ft wide runway was slightly challenging. The FAA describes two illusions: Wide Runway Looks closer on final and you will tend to float and flare high. Narrow Runway Looks farther away on final and you will tend to approach at a higher rate of descent.


11

In my opinion it's because of your left of centerline vantage point and the sight picture burned into your brain by the always left side crosswind aspect, and in your particular case the transition to an opposite aspect is confusing your eye/brain/hands-feet processing more than other people. Everybody has their learning quirks. The sight picture you are ...


11

Your $v_\mathrm{ref}$ does not depend on density altitude since it is given in Indicated Airspeed, which already accounts for density effects. However, the True Airspeed and therefore also Groundspeed will be higher at a higher density altitude, resulting in more runway required to stop. The Flight Safety Foundation has a nice summary of factors influencing ...


11

It's a perfectly acceptable practice, provided you disengage the autopilot upon reaching minimums and hand fly it the rest of the way. Some manufacturers, like Cirrus, recommend flying a coupled autopilot approach. I won't sit on the fence about this. Learning how to fly coupled autopilot approaches are fine, but I insist all my students learn how to hand ...


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