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107

"Sterile Cockpit" refers to the concept that pilots should not discuss anything not related to the flight during certain phases of flight (often defined as below FL100). A passenger occupying the lavatory while the flight is on approach and passengers are supposed to be in their seats definitely does have an impact on the flight, so it does not fall under ...


74

TACA Flight 110 made a deadstick landing on a grass levee. Engines got replaced and it took off using a nearby NASA facility. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TACA_Flight_110


61

"Sterile cockpit" doesn't mean abject silence; it means no idle chitchat. An issue relating to the safety of passengers is not idle chitchat, so it can be discussed at any time during the flight.


59

The energy unit costs for companies in Germany are much lower than for households. Where as a citizen you pay approximately 30 ct / kWh, the airport will pay much less, probably around 15 ct / kWh. Adjusting your calculation for this price, we have 37.5 k€ per year in terms of energy cost saving to offset the depreciation and maintenance of the ...


55

Why does the 747 not have its gear down yet? Based on the image it is hard to say how far these aircraft are from the runway. The 747 could still be be quite far from the runway and thus does not need to have its gear down yet. The 747-400 FCOM (NP.21.47 Normal Procedures) says: At glideslope alive, call: "GEAR DOWN" "FLAPS 20" It looks ...


52

Sure! An Ex-Interflug Ilyushin Il-62 was landed on the 900 m runway of Stölln/Rhinow airport (EDOR) in the German countryside in 1989 to be turned into a tourist attraction. Here is a short video of the event. As can be witnessed from the clouds of dirt, the pilot Heinz-Dieter Kallbach wasn't too concerned about using reverse thrust - the engines were not ...


52

It depends on the airfield. Landing on grass is only recommended if the ground is maintained to a reasonable standard and clear of obstructions. Some airfields have grass strips maintained for that purpose, on others the grass has lights, wires and cables, or just lots of holes/ruts which will be far worse than the tarmac. Some airfields are only grass, ...


46

Bouncing a landing is neither intentional nor desirable. There are several reasons why a student pilot might bounce, but for a professional pilot, it's most likely related to wind gusts, which are a challenge no matter how much training and experience you have. Gusts are by their nature unpredictable, and if one hits the plane right as it's touching down, ...


45

The various Space Shuttle Orbiters did this all the time. They mostly got piggyback rides back to their launch facilities.


44

An Aerolineas Argentinas' Boeing 737-200 was hijacked by terrorists in 1975 and made to land in a farm. The government took 10 days to unstuck the aircraft from the mud and to move and install a makeshift aluminum runway (a mesh-like thing that was usually used for ice operations) and take-off at less than minimum weight. The first officer was a glider ...


36

Well, you're using land that is under the authority, or delegated authority, of somebody, so technically you need that authority's permission to use other than a designated landing area under the airport's license. Remember that there could be liability issues for the person responsible for the airport, completely aside from the physical suitability of the ...


34

No one can "book" runways. Traffic on a runway is managed by air traffic control, whose job it is to ensure a safe and expeditious flow of air traffic. Generally speaking, a place on the runway is assigned on a first-come first-served basis. You may want to explore the air traffic control tag to learn more.


33

The Nimitz Class aircraft carriers are the largest warships ever built. With over 6,000 personnel (crew and aircrew), the carrier has a displacement of 102,000t, and a flight deck length of 332.9m. From: Nimitz Class Aircraft Carrier - Naval Technology https://www.naval-technology.com/projects/nimitz/ 332.9m * 39 in/m * 1 ft/12in = 1081.9 ft. I think many ...


32

Bounces are bad news on airliners because you are becoming airborne again just as the lift dumpers pop out, which makes the second touchdown even more exciting and often leads to hard landing inspections, and in extreme cases broken gears. The lift dump spoilers are supposed to limit bouncing tendency, but if you come down hard enough there is so much ...


32

The FAA covers this in the airplane flying manual quite nicely: Bouncing During Touchdown When the airplane contacts the ground with a sharp impact as the result of an improper attitude or an excessive rate of sink, it tends to bounce back into the air. Though the airplane’s tires and shock struts provide some springing action, the airplane does not ...


31

Shape-memory alloys change their shape with temperature, with control usually achieved with electric heating in one direction, and back with convective heat transfer to the environment. There is one specific temperature where the change in shape occurs. There are two huge problems with this: The operating temperature range for gear actuators is huge. It may ...


30

In the USA at the large international busy airports, the airlines have to reserve a landing time slot for arrivals. Indira Gandhi international airport might do the same. "A landing slot, takeoff slot, or airport slot is a permission granted by the owner of an airport designated as Level 3 (Coordinated Airport), which allows the grantee to schedule a ...


29

Most carrier-borne aircraft can't: they need (at a minimum) the arrestor wire system to be functional and set to the correct weight. As jwenting said, smaller aircraft may be able to. A C-130 Hercules famously landed on a carrier (without arrestor hook), but that may have required wind over the deck (i.e. the carrier steaming against the wind at high speed)...


29

A minimum max reverse power speed is often an airplane operating limitation. It's mostly related to FOD (mostly sand grains and small gravel) and on some designs there may be compressor stall issues due to flow disruptions. On the CRJ 700 max reverse is limited to 75kt although you can use up to 60% N1 down to zero speed. On a 900 you have to be at idle ...


28

All turbine-powered aircraft used in scheduled airline service under CFR Part 121 are required to have an approved TAWS installed; §121.354 Terrain awareness and warning system. (a) Airplanes manufactured after March 29, 2002. No person may operate a turbine- powered airplane unless that airplane is equipped with an approved terrain ...


27

The reason why airports don't schedule exact times and runways for take-off and landings are that there are far too many factors that are unpredictable in advance to know exactly when a plane is going to take off or land or which runway(s) will be available at that time. If a plane arrives at an airport earlier than scheduled, it makes no sense to have them ...


27

At the instant of touchdown, any vertical kinetic energy the plane possesses must be absorbed by the landing gear, which thereafter must bear the entire weight of the plane. That kinetic energy depends on the sink rate and the plane's weight. The sink rate ideally will be zero at wheels down in a perfect world, but the gear is designed to accomodate a ...


26

It's better to be low(-ish) and ready for a spot to open, than high and far from that spot. As to why, for busy international airports the answer is really simple: ► There isn't a way to manage it near perfectly (yet). To understand that statement, requires some prerequisites, so I'll try to simplify and summarize the basics: There is the concertina ...


25

A war-surplus B-17, named "Lacey Lady", was landed on an Oregon highway to be converted into a roadside restaurant and fuel station. I suppose it could have taken off from there again, if anyone had been suitably inclined… There have also been several incidents where an airliner made an emergency landing on runways or fields that were below normal minimum ...


24

In all Airbuses auto-braking system aims for specific deceleration. Once the design target has been reached, the system does not apply more brake pressure although there usually is more available. So, if you apply thrust reverser with autobrake selected it will apply less pressure on wheel brakes and as the target deceleration remains the same, the stopping ...


24

A B52 is pretty big right? When a B52 was acquired by the Imperial War Museum, Duxford (a former second world war airbase now museum with a 1500m runway). They had to use chutes and a few practice flybys before landing. It's now on permanent display. They had to do the same with a Concorde I believe! Video:


24

ATC will tell the landing plane to go-around. The pilot will then execute the go-around by flying the missed approach procedure as published in the airport charts. Go-arounds happen daily and are pretty much a routine action. In any case, if the landing pilot feels that the runway is not safe for landing, he can decide to go-around by himself without ATC ...


23

This would be possible with other fighter jets that are of similar design to the F-15, i.e. have a low aspect ratio, much of their lift produced close to the centerline, and a lot of control authority. They would also need the other two key ingredients for a landing of this kind: a strong aviator at the controls and a bit of luck. Specific contributing ...


23

You can't simply stick an arrestor hook on a passenger airplane, the fuselage is not designed for the forces that a rear hook would impart. Carrier airplanes are designed from the beginning for carrier landings and have beefed up structures. That extra structure adds weight to them (presuming it's even possible to do so), and it would also add weight to the ...


22

All VTOL's (Vertial takeoff or landing) planes will be able to land on an abandoned carrier, as they need a vastly reduced runway; it would be a bit like landing a helicopter. They will do so though at the cost of a huge amount of fuel and coolant; which may mean that they could struggle to do a return trip if they can't refuel.


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