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You only need radar services, usually you pick this up with approach if in flight or you can ask ground or tower for flight following before takeoff, then "Request practice approach NDB/DME-B, VFR". At many class D ground is the same as clearance delivery; even if it is two or three frequencies they only have one controller most of the day that ...


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When flying VFR from a Class D airport, there is no need to contact clearance delivery to practice IFR approaches. You may, on the other hand, have to call clearance delivery if that is the local procedure for all departures at that airport. This is not very common at a Class D airport. If a clearance is necessary for VFR flights at a Class D airport, most ...


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GPS approaches are designed for you to fall back to LNAV if a 'higher' precision option like LPV fails during the approach. Just like going from ILS to localizer only if the glideslope fails. The Instrument Procedure Handbook p. 4-26 says: Flying a WAAS LPV approach requires an aircraft with WAAS-LPV avionics. If for some reason the WAAS service becomes ...


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