40

There are no language recommendations or requirements, other than what is sensible given the verification requirements in the various standards (e.g., DO-178B/C). For the highest design assurance levels, the generated code must be inspected down at the op-code level to ensure no known processor gotchas are invoked. You also end up having to test every part ...


28

The following includes the changes you allude to (which were proposed in ICAO State Letter SP 59/4.1-11/8 on June 30, 2011). Commercial Flights Per ICAO Annex 6, Part I, section 4.3.6 "Fuel Requirements," airplanes should calculate their required fuel quantity as follows (summary; see below for actual ICAO text): Taxi fuel Trip fuel (to reach intended ...


25

Indeed USA deviates from ICAO: 5.2.2.4 Zeros are not used to precede single-digit runway markings. An optional configuration of the numeral 1 is available to designate a runway 1 and to prevent confusion with the runway centerline. Source: USA AIP - GEN 1.7 Differences From ICAO SARPs 5.2.2.4 in ICAO SARPs Annex 14 (Aerodromes) is as follows (emphasis mine)...


17

I'm only able to find the following about bank angles, which specifically refers to turns while in a holding pattern: AIM 5-3-86.(b): (b) Make all turns during entry and while holding at: (1) 3 degrees per second; or (2) 30 degree bank angle; or (3) 25 degree bank provided a flight director system is used. NOTE- Use whichever ...


15

As far as I know, there is no directive on which language to use. You have guidelines on how to test and certify software, but as far as these guidelines are concerned, no language is preferred, it is a design choice. As of today, in my (limited) experience as an engineer/programmer, I have mostly seen that non object oriented languages are preferred, since ...


12

As a private pilot, I have heard "Tally-ho" and other pseudo (British?) military phrases used when talking to ATC. I understand "Tally-ho" to be equivalent to "target(s) in sight" or "inbound" or even in some cases "affirmative", and that's the problem. It is important to be clear and precise when communicating on the radio, however, the folks working at ...


11

No, they aren't considered acceptable although you do hear them from time to time. Neither term is in the P/CG and the AIM 4-2-1 says: Good phraseology enhances safety and is the mark of a professional pilot. Jargon, chatter, and “CB” slang have no place in ATC communications. The Pilot/Controller Glossary is the same glossary used in FAA Order JO ...


9

45 degrees. 8.9.3.6 Aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or a series of headings calculated to close with the final approach track. The final vector shall enable the aircraft to be established in level flight on the final approach track prior to intercepting the specified or nominal glide path if an MLS, ILS or radar approach is to ...


8

A crew that consists of the basic required cockpit crew for the aircraft plus relief crew for long flights is called an "augmented flight crew." As far as I know, this designation is used by ICAO, the FAA, and the EASA (and likely others.) This ICAO document defines augmented flight crew as: Augmented flight crew. A flight crew that comprises more than ...


8

The "DESCEND VIA" clearance is described in FAA order 7110.65U (pdf) Section 4-5-7 paragraph h, which defines: h. Instructions to vertically navigate on a STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP with published >restrictions. PHRASEOLOGY- DESCEND VIA (STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP name and number) TERMINAL: DESCEND VIA (STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP name and number and runway number). ...


7

In the US, this in in 14 CFR 91.205, Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements. There's a lot of detail so you can check the whole thing, but looking only at communication and navigation items, the required equipment is: VFR (including night VFR) Magentic direction indicator ...


7

Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Russian Federation, Senegal, and Ukraine According to a 2006 ICAO report (mentioned also in this presentation) (emphasis mine), Nine States (Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Russian Federation, Senegal, and Ukraine) have no upper age limit, whereas fifty-five have an ...


6

The numbers aren't random, though at first glance the rationale may not be obvious. Weight 5700 kilograms is (roughly) 12,500 pounds - This aligns with the FAA definition of a "large aircraft" (an aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 12,500 pounds). Large aircraft tend to be "working airplanes" in passenger or ...


5

NO. Not an acceptable term. As stated earlier by others - the term has no official recognition and would only serve to confuse. Only a tiny (and rapidly diminishing) number across the globe appreciate its original 1930's context. Some commonsense and logical analysis: "Land Ho" means "land in sight!" "Tally" is another word for a score - or for a count of ...


5

Quote from the source: Under international aviation regulations, there must be at least one pilot under 60 in the cockpit at all times, and pilots over 65 cannot hold the captain position. Specifically for Canada: A new collective agreement, imposed by an arbitrator, sets out specific positions that pilots over 60 and over 65 can hold on Air Canada’...


5

Everything you need to know (at least in the USA) is here. Regarding airliners, it appears that they are carved out of the general requirement to have an ELT in 91.207.f.2. I guess that makes some sense. If you're flying a scheduled flight, presumably we should be able to find the plane, since we know the takeoff time and approximate airspeed, and we ...


5

Standard Rate of Turn for Heavy Aircraft? Standard rate turn is, well, standard. The standard is 3 degrees (of heading change) per second. So a 360 turn takes 2 minutes at the standard turn rate. Didn't say anything about the aircraft .... Every aircraft type has a specific bank angle at which it is turning at the standard rate. It's all due to the design ...


5

The FAA bases English proficiency on the ICAO Level 4 English Language Proficiency Criteria, which don't mention any particular dialect or variant of English. Instead, they focus on the speaker's ability to communicate and they explicitly accept that the speaker may make mistakes (emphasis mine): Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are ...


4

Many airliners, heavy or otherwise, don't even have turn indicators anymore. Airliners don't worry about rate of turn, they just go to a given bank angle, typically 25-30 degrees, and are done with it. That said, it's true that rate of turn doesn't depend on weight, but heavy aircraft usually fly faster, hence having a slower rate of turn. Pretty much all ...


4

I believe the ICAO regulation you are thinking of is this one: Excerpts from ICAO Annex 1- Personnel Licensing “1.2.5.2 Except as provided in 1.2.5.2.1, 1.2.5.2.2, 1.2.5.2.3, 1.2.5.2.4 and 1.2.5.2.5, a Medical Assessment issued in accordance with 1.2.4.5 and 1.2.4.6 shall be valid from the date of the medical examination for a period not greater ...


4

This explains everything about the Boeing 777's computer systems: http://archive.adaic.com/projects/atwork/boeing.html Honeywell was to develop the cockpit's primary flight controls in two projects, the Boeing 777's Airplane Information Management System and its Air Data/Inertial Reference System. For these projects, Honeywell purchased DDC-I, Inc.'...


4

"No Joy" or "Tally-Ho" are not acceptable when talking on aviation bands. Worse yet, they are not even true military terms. While "Tally" does mean you have the enemy in sight, notice there is no "Ho" attached to it. Since you are up there and NOT shooting at people you should use the term "Visual" when you can see the aircraft being referenced. Visual is ...


4

You have this tagged both FAA and ICAO but for the FAA thats governed under § 121.309 Emergency equipment. (c)Hand fire extinguishers for crew, passenger, cargo, and galley compartments. Hand fire extinguishers of an approved type must be provided for use in crew, passenger, cargo, and galley compartments in accordance with the following: ...


4

Preamble Declaring an emergency would be one of the most critical conversations, however it would be limited to something like this: Pilot: MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, Metro Control, Big Jet 345, main electric failure, request immediate landing at Metro, position 35 miles north west of Metro, heading 120 flight level 80 descending, 150 persons on board, ...


4

Private operations - no requirements. Single-engine is legal, you can argue as to the safety. Commercial operations... Single-engine: within gliding distance of the land. Twin-engines: always within 60 minutes of the land... unless specially approved airplane and operator, and airplane maintained according to much higher specs - this is ETOPS. More-than-two ...


3

Speaking as an ex cabin crew with one of the world's largest airline. I can definitely say that the CRC is part of the cabin, as safety and security checks are completed by the crew as part of cabin checks. Flight deck if I'm not mistaken is not considered part of the cabin. However smoking is usually not allowed according to general aviation rules ...


3

Altitude limits on these procedures have to take many different things into account, including obstacle clearance and communication, but also radar coverage, separation from other procedures and airspace, the overall profile of the procedure, noise abatement, and more. The at or above 2500 restriction on the DEEZZ is similarly included in the other SIDs at ...


3

The textual description says clearly: RWY track to 4.5 DME FFM/1.5 DME FRD or 800, whichever is later The equivalent encoding is: [A800+] - DF134 (25C)[L] / DF135 (25L)[L] The meaning of this is climb to an altitude of 800ft or above, then after passing DF134/DF135 turn left. From this EUROCONTROL document (Guidance Material for the Design of ...


2

Never heard of any sort of takeoff speed "category" applied to operators in US rules, but we do have rules (in an airline's OpSpecs) for our aircraft that tell us at what min visibility centerline lights are required for takeoff (and landing as well). If an airport were considering investing in Centerline Lights, that recommendation, combined with a little ...


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