24

You are seriously over estimating the technical capabilities of the time. The gun-sight is not much more than an intricate slide-rule. You had to feed it information about the target size/aircraft type and it used the gyro information from your own aircrafts turn rates to project a reticule circle on the glass. The position of the projection is offset ...


15

They are not calibrated for a certain speed. If by "calibrated", you mean they deflect together / to the same side, then you're using the instruments wrong. The two instruments have are not linked to each other, they operate independently and they operate on different principles. They are located next to each other in the cockpit out of convenience. The "...


15

Compass readings during turns are inaccurate and sometimes display turns when you are heading straight but accelerating. As such you need something that is referenced to the airframe turning itself. This is where the gyro comes in handy. Since it's referenced to the airframe and relatively unaffected over short periods of time it gives you your heading when ...


14

The self erection device in the attitude gyro that levels it when you start up on the ground also keeps it erect (its axis pointed at the center of the earth) when precession tends to send it off kilter during flight. Air driven gyros use a pendulous vane arrangement that controls the exhaust ports for the air being sucked through, and which always work to ...


13

Other answers here describe the functionality of such gunsights; the "calculation" was done by mechanical analog computer, made up of gears, cams, shafts, and linkages. Here's part of a Sperry K-3 gunsight computer from a B-17 (inherited from my father, who liked collecting strange gadgets, now decorating my kitchen): Additional information on the ...


11

I don't understand how it computed range/position to the target and then calculated how much lead is needed. Reading the Wikipedia article you linked, it didn't, but both assertions are unsourced. The distance was estimated visually by the gunner through a visual aid: a reticle to match to a target plane's known wingspan (to adjust the sight for the ...


10

From all that I have seen on that type of aircraft, there is merely a filter. If one was operating in a dusty environment (eg the bush) then I would add those to a 100 hour check. But honestly, I have never seen one clogged to the point it would not work. They are not suspectable to icing as there is a low pressure drop across them, and they get their air ...


10

A gyroscopic Attitude Indicator will not build up long-term error simply because of its erection mechanism in an extended coordinated turn. However, all gyroscopes will accumulate error over time, which must be corrected in some fashion. A gyroscopic AI will display a turning error of 3-5 degrees in a 180 degree turn. However, this precession is reversed in ...


9

IRS will drift over time. Decision altitude is 200ft for ILS CAT I approach. 0.5nm drift is not to much for navigation but it will be huge difference in altitude and you can hit obstacles if your altitude has drifted just couple of feet. Probably it could be used if backed by GPS as EGPWS does or non baro RNAV approaches do. But even GPS precision alone is ...


9

There is no virtually no lag on attitude indicators. The traditional ones are based on a mechanical gyroscope. Due to the gyroscope being gimbaled, it remains in a fixed attitude. When the aircraft changes attitude, the gyroscope in the attitude indicator remains at its original orientation. When you look at the attitude indicator you are looking basically ...


8

According to the diagram below from a TB200 pilots manual the gauge shows the difference between vacuum line and the ambient pressure: The pressure difference between the ambient and the vacuum line drives the airflow which spins the gyros in you instruments. In the Socata design, there is an implicit assumption that the air filter is not blocked. If the ...


8

Its not the gyrocompass. Its where the weather radar unit is mounted since the prop prevents it from being mounted in the nose like on many larger aircraft. You can find a nice instructional video on how to use it here. The magnetometer used on many aircraft to provide magnetic heading information to the systems is much smaller than those domes. (source) ...


8

A turn coordinator's axis of rotation is tilted around 30 degrees and rotates in the opposite direction. Because of this, looping errror is reversed and it under-reads at more than 1g. This makes it essentially useless when recovering from an unusual attitude on instruments, which is one situation in which you can easily find yourself when flying partial-...


7

Your understanding is partly right. Usually HSI indicators are associated with a slaving transmitter that includes the flux gate (the magnetic sensor), but also other elements such the directional gyro unit and a slaving control. So a typical system will usually include the below components (there are different designs, so check the characteristics of the ...


7

Maneuverability with this kind of drone comes with their small size and high thrust-to-weight ratio. When you scale such a dynamic system, the time scales with the square root of size, so the smaller the drone, the higher its agility. Can it do automatic stall recovery? No, because it never stalls. Can it do aerobatics? Only figures which are possible with ...


7

No, because in a turn the local “level” continuously changes. Lets say you are heading north and turning right. So your floor is banked to the east and the gyro is accumulating bias to east too. But after you make 90°, you are heading to the east and your bank is now to the south, so the gyro is accumulating bias to the south while the bias to the east is ...


7

I think the answer is "no and yes". Bear with me... That sort of device as a stand alone heading sensor has never been used in an aircraft and if you parse the Wikipedia article carefully it becomes apparent why, under the paragraph titled "Errors". A gyrocompass is subject to certain errors. These include steaming error, where rapid changes in course, ...


6

Talking about vacuum-driven gyros, which are what I'm mainly familiar with: When everything is working as designed (sufficient air pressure for normal gyro rotor speed, moderate maneuvers) there is some lag. You'll notice it if you're looking for it, but the "1-2 seconds" mentioned in the linked answer seems on the high side (at least based on what ...


6

The directional gyro (DG) does not know about heading. Its gyroscope will hold its position (e.g. the heading you set from the magnetic compass) in space. The plane is turning "around it", but DG is holding its position, so you can read the heading from the scale fixed to the airplane while the gyroscope holds its position in space. Only friction and other ...


6

Instrument parallax has to do with viewing position of the pilot compared to the instrument. You adjust the symbolic airplane to the horizon bar on the outside of the instrument, not the part that moves, so you don't have to wait for it to spin up or find flat ground. I do it as part of my pre-start instrument checks, after adjusting my seat. All mechanical ...


5

Inspired by this question, I would like to know what the pro's and con's of the mostly used vacuum-gyro and the less used high-pressure-gyro is. It is largely related to the instruments in your aircraft but in reality its all about air pressure and the systems are really doing the same thing in the end of the day. Lets look at the evolution a bit, ...


5

Just like altimeters, it depends on the specifications. The manual for this random vacuum attitude indicator says up to 40,000 feet. (Image source) In an aircraft, the vacuum source is often used to power gyroscopes in the various flight instruments. To prevent the complete loss of instrumentation in the event of an electrical failure, the instrument ...


5

If you haven't already done so, you should have a look at section 7 of the C162 POH. That section gives an overview of all the aircraft's systems and the information is at a good level of detail for a checkride (at least at the private level). The examiner isn't expecting you to explain how a ring laser gyro works, but he probably will expect you to be able ...


5

The basics: Acro airplanes don’t have attitude indicators because they don’t need them. The airplanes are certified at Day/Night VFR flight only and gyroscopic instruments are not required equipment here, not to mention can be precessed and damaged by aerobatic flight. The only attitude instruments needed here is the horizon itself and the pilot’s Mk I ...


5

You have the yaw/roll switched. The TC's canted gyro adds roll to the yaw rate sensing, not the other way around. The biggest drawback to the turn coordinator was the presentation of the aircraft, which to someone new to its use can tend to get mentally processed as a horizon bar, especially an old timer trained on aircraft with war surplus black face ...


5

Yes. It's actually easier. Just consider the fact that an indirect indicator consists of two separate moving parts with one degree of freedom each, rather than one with two (or even three for navball) DoF. Instead of a ball, the pitch indicator can be a ring with continuous rotation, like so: Note that most modern attitude indicators have a remote (separate)...


5

The turn coordinator is a rate gyro. Unlike attitude and heading gyros that are free to rotate and the instrument senses the orientation of their axis, the turn coordinator (and the turn indicator one) has the axis mounted fixed and the instrument measures the torque forces as the gyroscope tries to resist the rotational motion. With the axis mounted along ...


4

Looks like the following link takes you to the G300 user manual. You'll find your answers here, and this document would be a good one to be familiar with for exactly the sorts of questions you're anticipating. G300 The short answer is, the G300 has, instead of mechanical gyros, an AHRS -- "attitude and heading reference system", which is essentially an INS ...


4

There are 4 left turning tendencies in aircraft with "clockwise" (as seen from the pilots seat) turning propeller, 3 of which may apply during a full power climb out. The four are: Prop torque - prop turns right, plane rolls left - more noticeable at high power/slower speed Gyroscopic precession - nose goes down - plane yaws left - not a factor in a ...


4

A VFR pilot shouldn't really be "scanning" the instruments in the sense that an IFR pilot does; he should be scanning the sky for traffic (see my first answer) while using his peripheral vision to maintain attitude. Yes, he should periodically (and briefly) check the instruments to make sure nothing is amiss, but then go back to scanning for traffic. I ...


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