5

As also stated in this answer: Range is a function of MTOW and empty weight, according to the Breguet Equation for a jet: $$R=\frac{V}{c_T} \cdot \frac{L}{D} \cdot ln\frac{W_i}{W_i-W_f}$$ with ${c_T}$ = specific fuel consumption, $W_i$ = initial weight, $W_f$ = fuel weight, $L$ = lift, $D$ = drag. What increases range if other factors remain constant: ...


5

The F-22 was developed in the 90's, primarily for use by the United States Air Force. This means it was designed to serve specific mission profiles. The F-35 however is going to replace the F-22 and serve all the air branches of the US Military. This means that it needed a broader mission profile. The last F-22 delivery was in 2016. For the F-22 Raptor: ...


4

Tip tanks are only used when the wing volume is not sufficient to carry the needed fuel. They can mostly be found on the early jets which had thin wings for a higher Mach number of drag rise onset and very thirsty engines. They offer two advantages over conventional external tanks: Their wing tip location allows the highest wing bending relief for a given ...


4

The decrease in fatigue is not a property that's automatically conferred to the plane by the introduction of wet wing - it's a product of smart design. Usually the decision to use a wet wing is made during the initial design of a plane, and the support structure of the wing is built accordingly, so that it can take the dynamic strains that occur upon ...


3

Earlier B-52s did not carry all their fuel in the fuselage. They also carried their fuel in the wings using rubber bladder-type wing tanks. The new B52G “wet wing” was a weight savings measure which also increased the fuel capacity over the bladder-type in-wing tanks. The metal fatigue of the new wing was due to a poor structural design which was supposed ...


2

In at least one case, yes! The Convair 990 jetliner (a derivative of the earlier Convair 880) had large, prominent antishock bodies on its upper rear wings, easily seen in this photograph of a retired NASA 990: (Image by NASA, via Stahlkocher at Wikimedia Commons.) These antishock bodies - particularly the larger inboard ones - also served as fuel tanks, ...


2

The third drain is at the bottom of the electric fuel pump; The AT01 is what Aquila calls the AT210 on their web site.


2

For small planes, putting fuel in tip tanks lets you add extra capacity without having to re-engineer the fuel cells inside the wing or the shape of the wing itself. It also lets you offer the plane for sale with or without the tip tanks so your customers can tailor the available tankage to best match their intended use model for the plane. It also means ...


2

The airplane's published range will be based on distance that can be flown in still air (excluding winds in other words) with full fuel, departing at max gross weight, when flown at some optimized cruise speed or mach#, at a specified flight level, with normal IFR fuel reserves (fuel to go from A to B, fly an approach, do a missed approach, proceed to ...


1

Speed, fuel capacity, and burn rate are the only three factors that determine range. Optimizing each of these variables will lead to the most efficient results. Generally speaking greater fuel capacity will increase range, which is why auxiliary tanks are sometimes used. There are a great many design factors that influence each of these three variables, ...


1

In addition to Farhan's answer, we can also say that A350-900ULR (Ultra Long Range) version, capable of 20 hours of non-stop flights and up to 9,700 nautical miles, or 1,600 more than the standard A350-900, integrates a modified fuel system, which increases the aircraft’s fuel carrying capacity by 24,000 litres without the need for additional fuel tanks, ...


1

Probably safer in the belly than anywhere else due to stress, bending, and weight balance issues. The wings would be closest to pitch CG, but loading them with fuel would affect the roll rate as well as a possibility of creating a sickening uneven "sloshing" motion that could affect passenger comfort. The solution is called "inerting" or eliminating one ...


1

Yes the fuel from the centre tank can be moved to another place in the aircraft. It's a lot of fuel though. Some ideas I thought of: Store fuel in anti-shock bodies on the wings (or they could be just small sears-haack bodies on the wings). Technically possible, but there will be a large amount of pods. Store fuel in the empannage. This is already done ...


1

Given the well-known unreliability of GA planes' fuel gauges, I would never accept a rental plane with less than full tanks. That is the only way to be sure how much fuel you actually have. Burning off fuel in the pattern or draining it into tanks are IMHO only reasonable options for an extremely short flight or if you're only overweight by a few gallons. ...


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