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2

As you can see, the supply chain is big (with filters and water separators at various points). The short answer is that standards and quality checks are followed. As for the jetliners, as far as I know they can't detect the fuel quality, but some can alert if issues arise in the fuel filters. The certification standards focus on engine restart capability ...


6

You can find the amount of unusable fuel in the EASA Type Certificate Data Sheet. Here is an example table for the A320-200 from that document: In general, the cockpit displays will always show the amount of usable fuel only. This is mandated e.g. by EASA CS 25.1337: (b) Fuel quantity indicator. There must be means to indicate to the flight-crew members, ...


8

The idle circuit is set to be richer than necessary to help the engine run better when cold. This is because you start with prime, not a choke, so there is nothing to keep the mixture extra rich for cold running once the primer fuel in the intake has been used up. If you don't set the idle mixture richer than necessary, the engine will die after running a ...


8

Engine are usually run slightly richer than a stoichiometric mixture, to ensure reliable running and avoid overheating the pistons and valves. When you cut off the fuel, it goes from slightly too much fuel to none - and so it's briefly at a stoichiometric ratio. The engine runs slightly faster at this ratio because it's not wasting energy heating up unburnt ...


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