24 votes
Accepted

Will computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ever be 100% correct?

This is a broad question, hence a broad answer 😃 As high eng CFD now stands, it already is correct enough for, say, 95% of use cases. I am not aware of much utility in modelling complex turbulent ...
  • 24.8k
13 votes

Why are there two local maximums on some CL vs AOA curves?

The mini stall is the stall that we normally talk about when considering the flight of an aeroplane, and is therefore the main stall. Below the AoA where the first stall occurs, the wing profile is ...
  • 60.4k
11 votes

Will computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ever be 100% correct?

100% correct, no. That's because CFD (and a great many other computer applications) work on numerical approximations. There's either no exact solution* known, or the exact solution isn't computable. ...
  • 2,557
8 votes
Accepted

What is the difference between static and dynamic stall?

Static stall is what we typically think of, when we think of stall. Slowly increasing AOA and then loss of lift as the flow separates. But pitch rate (rate of increase of AOA) has an impact too. At ...
  • 1,933
8 votes
Accepted

What are the "beta lines" of a gas turbine engine component?

Beta lines are either linear or parabolic shaped lines that are conveniently placed and spaced between the surge line and the choke line of the compressor (or fan) characteristic (also known as ...
  • 1,468
7 votes
Accepted

Why do shockwaves progressively move aft as speed increses?

The answer is deeply rooted in the theory of compressible fluid dynamics, so for a fully satisfactory take on the matter you might want to refer to a textbook on that topic (such as Thompson or ...
7 votes

Will computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ever be 100% correct?

First, the Millennium Challenge asks about the existence and uniqueness of a solution to the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations given any compatible initial/boundary conditions. This question is of ...
  • 10.9k
6 votes
Accepted

What is boundary layer tripping?

Tripping the boundary layer refers to the action of artificially transitioning a laminar boundary layer into a turbulent one. It can happen intentionally (via turbulator) or unintentionally (via ...
  • 10.9k
6 votes
Accepted

Why does turbofan exhaust appear to reverse direction?

What you are describing is a characteristic of fluid dynamics known as eddies. As different portions of the fluid flow faster than others, the friction and surface adhesion between the two layers ...
  • 4,779
6 votes
Accepted

Why can't supersonic flow work its way upstream?

I don't really understand what upstream or downstream mean. Can someone explain to me please? For an observer sitting in a flying airplane, it looks as if a stream of air is rushing towards and then ...
5 votes
Accepted

Is the shear centre of a wing the same as its aerodynamic centre?

No. These are very different things. The shear centre (SC) is a purely mechanical (structural) feature of the wing design. It is a point along the chord such that application of force - no matter ...
  • 8,815
5 votes

Is it possible to have a separated boundary layer without having reversal flow?

I think I have a partial answer that I have found in a paper [1]: The following is a quote from the introduction: It is too narrow a view to use vanishing surface shearing stress or flow reversal as ...
4 votes

Do stall strips mean that wing washout is not required?

Rectangular wings can get away without washout because that planform tends to have favourable root to tip stall progression as a characteristic of the rectangular shape. The stall strips aren't ...
  • 114k
4 votes
Accepted

Is it possible to have the laminar flow above $Re=10^7$?

The airfoil always starts with a laminar boundary layer; at some point on the airfoil surface, the boundary layer may transition to turbulent. In a uniform free-stream, two modes of transitions ...
  • 10.9k
3 votes

On an aerofoil or circular cylinder why does the airflow stay attached after passing the point of maximum thickness?

This is due to the Coandă effect. https://www.britannica.com/technology/fluidics#ref129652 In the 1930s Henri Coandă, a Romanian scientist, described what is now known as the Coandă effect, a major ...
  • 1,438
3 votes
Accepted

What causes the vortex on the tip of this vertical stabilizer (CFD Simulation)

The subtitle of the video states: This video shows a high-fidelity CFD simulation of flow control applied to realistic wing profiles using PHASTA and ParaView Catalyst. Work done by Michel Rasquin ...
  • 60.4k
3 votes
Accepted

What happens to the high pressure below an airfoil when the angle of attack increases?

Your answer is correct. The pressure distribution from the xfoil simulation on a NACA 0012 are shown below for AOA 0 and AOA 5. As you can see, the lower side pressure does increase. However, most of ...
  • 10.9k
3 votes
Accepted

Why is the stagnation point on the upper surface before the start of circulation?

The illustrations under the time-invariant, inviscid, irrotational and incompressible (potential) description is a bit misleading, in my opinion. In the real world, assuming the airfoil starts from ...
  • 10.9k
3 votes

Bed sheet as wing skin?

Absolutely you can use a fabric for covering and airframe. I used to build large scale R/C aircraft much like they used to build real world aircraft. I used fine silk to cover the wings, elevator, ...
  • 31
3 votes
Accepted

What aerodynamic phenomenae can decrease the pressure gradient in Boundary Layer Ingestion?

First, let me explain the context of your question: It is about a concept for a future airliner: Boeing Blended-Wing-Body Model 450-1U, taken from NASA/CR-2006-214534. In the artist impression ...
3 votes

Is multi element wing good option for slow flight airplanes?

Excellent application inverted on the drag racer, which brings home the point perfectly. If you have enough excess thrust, devices like these can dramaticly increase Coefficient of Lift, but at the ...
3 votes

How does the turbulent boundary layer thickness affect separation?

On a flat plate the thickness of the boundary layer grows along the flow path without a tendency to separate. Therefore, thickness alone is not the culprit. However, when the pressure gradient in flow ...
3 votes

Will computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ever be 100% correct?

For the reasons cited above, the answer definitely No, but one point to remember here is that high-end CFD does not have to be perfect to be immensely useful. Imagine one wanted to get 7-place ...
3 votes

Will computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ever be 100% correct?

No, it will never be 100% accurate. Air or water are quite well described by the Navier-Stokes equations assuming the fluid is a continuum. Usually it is also assumed that they are Newtonian fluid. ...
3 votes

How the placement of the pitot and static ports decided?

Both the pitot and static pressures will vary a lot based on: Airspeed CG location Angle of bank Angle of attack Configuration, especially flaps In the CFD model, and then again in flight test, you ...
  • 3,307
2 votes

Do stall strips mean that wing washout is not required?

6 degrees of washout means the angle of incidence is 6 degrees lower at the tip than the wing root, causing the wing root to stall first. Leading edge slats serve the same function, especially in ...
2 votes
Accepted

What are accurate flight simulation models called? Is there a standard model?

14 CFR Part 60 regulates what constitutes a Flight Simulator Training Device (FSTD) for a particular aircraft model. FSTD is divided into two broad categories: Full Flight Simulators (FFS) and Flight ...
  • 10.9k
2 votes

How is the flow of air through a NACA submerged inlet determined?

The flow through the inlet is determined by the resistance of everything behind the inlet. If the inlet is blocked off internally, there is no flow and $v_i$ = zero. The mass flow is indeed the way ...
  • 60.4k
2 votes
Accepted

Why do wingtip vortices affect the upwash ahead of the aerofoil?

This is a fascinating topic, and it really boils down to the mechanics of lift. Physically, upwash and downwash are generated as the air accelerates/decelerates and curves around the LE of the wing. ...
  • 10.9k
2 votes
Accepted

Boundary layer momentum thickness

Both are different ways to express the boundary layer thickness in a deterministic way. The boundary layer according to wikipedia: a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer ...
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