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68

A couple of things come to mind that enable this: you don't become a fighter pilot if you are not intelligent and highly motivated you are not learning a new skill, just doing what you are already trained to do in an environment that just looks different (this would somewhat exclude Russian helicopters) the list of things to learn is really not that long, ...


54

It generally means that the hydraulic actuator (power control unit) driving the surface has an "idle" facility that allows fluid to move internally between the two sides of the actuator piston, or just circulate in the pressure/return lines, and when unpressurized it acts more or less like a hydraulic damper even though the input spool valve is at its "null" ...


45

It's technical, not political The F-35 was an attempt to do exactly what you propose, lowering costs by planned sharing of 80% of parts across variants, but it turns out that the USN's F-35C costs over twice as much as the USAF's F-35A, and only shares 20-25% of it's parts. The project has been a disaster practically since day one, and the services are ...


40

You don't need to speak(1) fluent(2) Russian(3): In fact you don't need to speak at all, just understand. You don't need to be fluent, just understand enough to not crash the plane. It's not about Russian, it is about Russian Aviation Jargon. (Think about English: if you walked up to a random person on the street and started talking about laminar flow, ...


30

It's a Russian YAK-141 This was the VTOL prototype meant to compete with the Harrier and perform carrier-based work (note: edited for clarity) Designers from the Yakovlev bureau found out, that the double engine scheme of the Yak-38 and Harrier was not suitable for the new plane. Instead they created a layout with a single engine, that could turn 95° ...


22

It was a test bed that was looking into laminar flow on the wings. was converted in 1942 as a two-seater, with an elongated central nacelle extending aft of the wing trailing edge, intended as a research vehicle to find ways of reducing drag, and was the only P-38 to have have a full dual set of flight controls. Later it was modified with ...


21

If you are referring to the Sidewinder missile, the first iteration AIM-9X did not have a requirement to be launched from internal stores, known as captive carry, but in testing it demonstrated that it could lock on after launch. This was deemed interesting enough that Raytheon got a contract for the Block II variant, which among other things adds a datalink ...


18

@John K's answer is perfect. However, in other mechanical systems such as elevators, fork-lifts, factory machines, etc and also NON hydraulic systems (and also possibly Jets) it is designed to be so so that when the machine is idle/switched-off the system is in a 'non-stressed' state or in a 'safe state'. The keywords are 'design' and 'requirement'. As @...


17

The YF-17 is the answer to your question. It is the predecessor to the F/A-18, and was designed as a land-based fighter. The YF-17 is much lighter than the F/A-18, because it does not need to carry equipment for carrier landings. Adding this equipment makes the aircraft heavier, compromising performance. You then need to compensate for the added weight, but ...


15

former F-18 pilot here, it's my first post here so be kind :) NVG's are not for domestic use, they are entirely tactical. Here are some uses; Night formation (Defensive/Offensive counter air missions), such that formation members can fly lights off or in night mode (which we did all the time). Most fighters have external NVG lighting that can't be seen ...


15

It's a Panavia Tornado. Found a site with that picture and others from the same air show. Here is a better picture of one in the same markings. It is part of the RAF No. 5 Squadron, which switched from the English Electric Lightning to the Tornado in 1988. The squadron uses a maple leaf to commemorate their link to the Canadian Corps in World War 1. Source


11

The needs to operate on a carrier are different than the needs for a land based aircraft. They are subtle, but significant. As others have pointed out, the F-35 attempted to address these issues and wound up way over budget. (It was made even more complicated by the addition of a STOVL version for the Marines, the F-35B). CATOBAR aircraft differ from ...


11

It's an F-18 Hornet: Source: Wikipedia Here is a view a little closer to your angle: Source: Wikipedia The one in your picture has extended range fuel tanks under the wings, the one above shows the hardpoint mounting for those fuel tanks.


11

Just to add: I was at an airshow in Australia once in the 90's and the radio announcer said the MiG-15 which was flying had labels on all the instruments to meet the CASA (Civil Australian Safety Authority) regulations to be allowed to be registered here. Sure enough, all the instruments had sticky-back DYMO labels (the old style, with the white stamped/...


10

For most aircraft, the advantage of flying high is that the air is thinner, so you go faster for the same fuel burn. For fighters, height gives you the ability to dive to gain speed, giving them the option for intercept a lower plane, or run away faster than a lower plane can follow. If they're relying on their own radar, it also allows them to see further ...


10

One of the first was probably the unconventional XP-79. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_XP-79 It never entered service of course, but does meet your criteria. Something that kinda meets your criteria would be the F7U Cutlass. Twin tails and twin rear mounted engines though the tails were in separate tail booms outboard of the engines, a similar ...


10

This is a safety feature. You don't want the airplane to blow over in a strong wind. With the elevators down (as you see them in the pictures), a gust from the front will push the plane's nose down and keep the main wing from generating lift. A gust from behind will push the nose up, but in this case, the main wing will present its top surface to the gust,...


9

I believe that these are static discharge wicks. You can see similarly sized/shaped wicks on a 1/32 scale models of the SU-27, as discussed here, but, more importantly, you can find them labeled with number 53 on the cutaway drawing below. The label is written as Разрядники статического злектричества, which, according to Google Translate, is "ESD arrestor" ...


9

Addition: In the cold war era, quite a lot of documentation for Russian equipment seems to have been available (well, existent) in German too (eg you can find training films for setting up antiaircraft batteries on youtube, in German), plus some export versions of Russian-made gear with German labelling. The reason is that the Nationale Volksarmee in East ...


8

The F-35 is a plane that relies on safety via stealth, rather than armor. The F-35 fuselage can be dented much like any other plane. The F-35 uses a variety of methods to reduce the its radar signature, most of which revolve around the "skin" of the fuselage - the way the fuselage is physically shaped is meant to reduce the reflection of radar, and there are ...


8

No. Their range limitation stems from their original concept: relatively cheap simple lightweight agile fighter (MiG-21) or interceptor (Mirage III). There are plenty of long(er)-range aircraft with delta wing (if that's what you mean). Concorde, for one. B-58. Eurofighter. For a given class of aircraft, range is primarily a function of fuel quantity and ...


8

It's not that hard to learn a language, certainly the technical parts. However it's a bit more than words; for instance Soviet attitude indicators work very differently. You just need to think in Russian :)


8

As a non-native speaker for both English and Russian I can confirm that you don't really have to speak (or even read) some language in order to operate a more or less familiar machine labeled in that language. Most people from smaller nations are used to this, those that were young in 1953 - even more so.


8

In this part of his TED talk, Col. Chris Hadfield recounts his return from the ISS in the Soyuz spacecraft. His speech is about how the experience could have been scary and overwhelming, but "instead, twenty years previously, we had started studying Russian. And then once you learn Russian then we learned orbital mechanics in Russian, and then we ...


8

The pylons are not just for weapons; the term used for the Typhoon aircraft is the Wing Pylon Station Unit (WPSU) and some of those are designed to be able to carry external fuel tanks. Some aircraft (such as the vernerable F-4 Phantom II) had 4 wing pylons which were more or less permanently attached (unless they were defective in which case they could be ...


7

With very select exceptions like the Su-34, and the A-10 if you consider it modern, they are not. Even in these cases only the pilot and a few critical parts are armored. Most of the aircraft's skin offers no meaningful resistance even to small arms. Extensive armor coverage that could withstand modern air-to-air or surface-to-air weapons simply isn't ...


7

No they do not nor are there any modern fighters that I am aware of that are intended to operate in icing conditions nor would they pass the FAA’s certification processes for flight into known icing. As an example from the Grumman F-14D NATOPS Flight Manual, Section 18 - Extreme Weather Operations. The basics are that Tomcat aircrews are advised to avoid ...


7

That would not be required as an experienced pilot can find their way around the cockpit with relative ease. You can spot the basic flight instruments, navigation instruments and engine instruments with ease. Additional systems can be re-placarded as well by native language speakers. In addition most of these ‘acquisitions’ were turned over by defecting ...


7

Russian YAK-141 aka YAK-41 VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yakovlev_Yak-141


6

Good question! As it turns out, fighter jets do not have deicing equipment on the flight surfaces such as wings and stabilizer, but they usually do have it around the engine inlet(s). The reason is that for the most part jet fighters operate at altitudes where icing is not a problem, and the pilots know to avoid conditions that could lead to icing. Icing on ...


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