Those bumps were for carrying the space shuttle. But now that they don't carry the space shuttle anymore, it's practically useless. I wonder why they didn't take it of, that could save some weight and fuel. I guess maybe it could act like a vertical stabilizer, even though it is quite small for the size of the Antonov 225. Anyways, that's all I've got to say....
The "canoe" is thought to house "advanced" satellite communications equipment. This is a classified aircraft though, so there isn't a lot of publicly available information on exactly what other equipment might be contained in that hump.
That display is part of the AFS (Auto Flight System) Control Panel on the FCU (Flight Control Unit):
(Airbus A340 FCOM - Auto Flight - General)
The general idea of the FCU is that you can push in the knobs, which will put the respective autoflight mode in an automatic setting (called managed mode) and show dashes in the display, and you can pull the knobs ...
Fin and Tail formation lights.
Look up slime lights. When lit, they look like slimy green, hence the name. They are used for flying formation at night when it isn't possible to use visual clues such as wingtips, missiles, intakes, etc. Basically for dark/night visual pickup, formation keeping. They are for night operations and have visible and infrared ...
Source: primeportal.net; cropped
That's the cooling-air outlet that is aft of the cooling inlet. In between is a power amplifier for the radar-warning system.
Source: amazon.co.uk (one of the product images); cropped
118: Cooling-air ram air intake
124: Radar-warning system power amplifier
Related: What is the device at the tail of the F-16 ...
These are the auxiliary air inlets for the ECS (Environmental Control System):
They provide air to the primary heat exchanger (A18), which is then exhausted via the ram air exhaust (A20, the tubes visible behind the inlets in your picture).
"Wheel pants" is a common term for these wheel fairings, at least in US usage, which serve to reduce drag. They have also been called "spats", though that term has traditionally been reserved for something much larger, at least in US usage.
How can drag induced by the landing gear be reduced?? -- see all answers
What is "spatted ...
Those are called speed fairings.
They make the shape over the tire more aerodynamic and reduce drag, thus increasing airspeed and fuel efficiency.
This is a page in a Cessna 172R information manual that comments on the differences in performance when they are installed.
Although it is difficult to say from old photos, the tubes doesn't seem to be visible on the prototype or early Vulcans.
Another Vulcan, XH558 started life as a B2 and are fitted with Olympus 202 engines. Looking at a photo of it there are what appear to be intakes on each engine, as seen here. I don't know what engines the Duxford Vulcan has, but ...
Well, they're not for fuel dumping or for drag chutes. That much at least is ruled out by the 156-element cutaway diagram on pp. 183-186 of P.D. Stemp's "Kites, birds and stuff: Avro Aircraft."
A similar diagram of one of the B.2's Olympus 301 engines might conclusively name these pipes.
This photo from Grace's Guide reveals some peripheral pipes that ...