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37

From a legal perspective, 'careless' and 'reckless' sound similar but are quite different. Careless is the antonym of prudent and careful. There is usually no attempt to analyze the state of mind of the offender (other than in defense to reduce a more serious charge to the less serious careless.) An example might be failing to lower the landing gear because ...


29

This is an educated guess, based on history: Electric razors were once well known as prone to generating elctromagnetic interference -- the ones available in the 1940s could pretty well blanket a nearby AM broadcast radio receiver. However, in similar time frames, it was very important for oxygen masks to fit closely on the face, and beard stubble, besides ...


26

The Sault Ste. Marie Airport (CYAM) is a Canadian airport with Class D airspace that extends into US territory: Skyvector


24

You wrote that: it would seem both aircraft will either perceive themselves as being to the left or right of the other meaning either both aircraft or neither aircraft would have the right of way. But that's only the case if the two aircraft are approaching head-on, or nearly so, and the FAR you quoted already accounts for that situation: Converging. When ...


19

The answer, as best I can discern it from my training & my own experience, is "You can't!" -- every instructor I've flown with has said that cloud clearances are the most inadvertently-busted regulation, even when pilots are doing their best to obey the requirements. Our eyes and brain are really good at judging distance relative to landmarks and objects ...


17

This is a tricky question, because it depends greatly on the laws of the locations you're flying to / from. Here's a few of the things you have to take into consideration. Transporting is generally ok According to 18 U.S.C. 926A: Notwithstanding any other provision of any law or any rule or regulation of a State or any political subdivision thereof, any ...


17

While distances are hard for many people to estimate, time is much easier for many people to estimate. Pull out your trusty E6B, and work out the distance in terms of seconds. For example, at a cruising speed of 110Kts (typical for many small GA student planes), 3 Miles is 1 minute 30 seconds 2000 feet is 10 seconds. So if you cannot see where you'll be ...


17

The most simple reason is the military has its own set of flight rules (AFI 11-202, OPNAVINST 3710.7U) that for many years duplicated many of the applicable FAR/AIM regulations. In addition, the varied mission sets and training scenarios the military operates under sometimes require them to do non-standard things, so there are a number of "carve-outs" for ...


14

Well, as with many issues involving the FAA, the "why" is a bit of a mystery. Perhaps they thought that the pilot can "lead by example" if a bail-out is needed. I'd imagine that a lot of passengers would be a little reluctant to jump out of an airplane, but once they see the pilot go I can see them becoming highly motivated! As far as not needing the ...


13

According to the ATC orders controllers can indeed clear an aircraft for takeoff 'early': 3−9−5. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION Takeoff clearance needs [sic] not be withheld until prescribed separation exists if there is a reasonable assurance it will exist when the aircraft starts [sic] takeoff roll. A common scenario would be clearing an aircraft ...


10

You can descend down to 100ft above TDZE if you have any ALS in sight. You need an ALS with red lights (ALSF I & II) to go below that. Red terminating bars/red side row bars help you find the threshold. Think of an ALS with red lights as being in the same category as Runway/lights/markings, Threashold/lights/markings, Touchdown Zone/lights/markings, ...


10

Well, I'm going with "It's a written exception, but nobody thought to include it in 14 CFR 91.119 though". I say this because there are a number of regulations that require a student pilot or applicant for a license to receive and log flight training for go-arounds. For example: 14 CFR 61.87 - Solo requirements for student pilots 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight ...


9

The difference is subtle, but here it is: anywhere means anywhere: At all times you need to operate at an altitude where, should you lose power, you can put your aircraft on the ground without "undue" hazard to anyone on the ground. Ignoring all airspace considerations, say you're operating over a city (a congested area), and keeping to the bare minimum ...


9

Note: this may be a dupe of this question. However, you seem to be saying that you've read and understood the regulations on what to do, you just don't believe that ATC or the FAA really expects you to follow them. In the scenario you describe you are indeed expected to fly from the airport to an IAF before beginning an approach. There's a long and detailed ...


8

The best answer I can give is generally, no. In relatively few cases – for aircraft operated under Part 91 Subpart K, which applies to fractional ownership like Netjets – the operator must possess an Mspec, which would be applied for at the local FSDO. I'm not sure what that process looks like, but the FAA's Commercial Operations Branch has some good ...


8

General Each person leaving the country must be authorized to return to the US. (ie. they are a US citizen or their visa allows them to leave and return to the US.) Ensure that you have all required paperwork Pilot license Medical Aircraft Registration The aircraft must have a current customs decal. Ensure that the aircraft is properly equipped 12" ...


8

I've been in aircraft maintenance for over 15 years, and have worked about 10 different types of narrow and wide body aircraft, and have never once seen a maintenance manual direct me to test fly an aircraft. There is a reason for this, though. Repairs done during routine maintenance are designed by the manufacturer such that the repair itself makes the ...


7

This regulation does not apply to an ILS approach. You are right is saying that "the VOR system of radio navigation" refers to actual VORs. If the flight is conducted using GPS to an ILS approach then you aren't using VOR for navigation. It does not matter that ILS uses the same instrument display. Intuitively, though ILS and VOR use the same display and ...


7

According to the AIM, you should not interpolate these values. You should use the next higher RVR instead: 5-4-20 Approach and Landing Minimums a. Landing Minimums. The rules applicable to landing minimums are contained in 14 CFR Section 91.175. TBL 5-4-1 may be used to convert RVR to ground or flight visibility. For converting RVR values that fall between ...


6

All references for this answer are in the FAA Order 7110.65. A departure cannot start their takeoff roll before the previous arrival has cleared the runway. What most controllers will do, is use a provision for anticipated separation (3-9-5), which basically means, if someone's holding short, and you can predict when the arrival will exit, you can go ahead ...


6

The best practice is to pre-flight everything for every flight: If you have different pre-flight procedures for different situations then sooner or later you'll use the wrong one and miss something that you should have found. Consistency is really helpful in procedures. Even if something isn't needed for the flight, checking everything gives you an accurate ...


6

VFR cloud clearance requirements are listed in 14 CFR 91.155 and for Class E airspace specifies: Class E: Less than 10,000 feet MSL. Flight Visibility: 3 statute miles Distance From Clouds: 500 feet below, 1,000 feet above, 2,000 feet horizontal. At or above 10,000 feet MSL. Flight Visibility: 5 statute miles Distance From Clouds: 1,...


6

FAR Part 135.91 notes that medical oxygen containers - whether for the storage, generation, or dispensing of oxygen - must be: 135.91.a.1.i Of an approved type or in conformity with the manufacturing, packaging, marking, labeling, and maintenance requirements of title 49 CFR parts 171, 172, and 173, except §173.24(a)(1) 135.91.a.1.ii When owned by the ...


6

Most probably the same definition as a dictionary's: open-water. An expanse of an ocean, sea, or large lake which is distant from shore and devoid of nearby islands or other obstructions. I searched for a legal definition but I can't find one. It's like defining a sparsely populated area, it's hard to draw a line. So sticking to charts is best I guess. ...


6

First, you said you're cruising at 4500 indicated, but then state that you are 4500 AGL. Indicated altitude is usually MSL, so this means the terrain is at 0 ft MSL until the base of the cliff, which then shoots up to 4000 MSL. So as you travel westbound at 4500 MSL, you are in compliance with 91.159. The moment that the distance between your aircraft ...


6

As the owner, you (likely) may replace the bulb yourself It comes down to the complexity of the work. Owners can now do far more preventive maintenance than the 32 listed items For many years, the FAA treated the 32-item list in 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 as exhaustive. The interpretation was that if an item or procedure did not appear in section (c), then ...


6

Consider two aircraft converging at a 90° angle, as two cars arriving at a stop sign. "Rightness" or "Leftness" would be determined by the shortest angular distance between them: If B is 90° counterclockwise (right) of A, then A is 270° counterclockwise (right) of B—meaning A is 90° clockwise (left) of B. So B is "to the right" ...


6

I can't provide a definite yes or no, but I can discuss some of the FARs that will need to be considered. In most cases you have to consider three groups of FARs; covering aircraft, aircrew, and operations. For the aircraft, they have to have an airworthiness certificate. The Kodiak is certificated, but you have to address operating without the cargo door (...


6

In aviation law and elsewhere, these terms have clearly defined meanings that make them distinct. Here is an excerpt from a law firm analysis on the distinction as it pertains to motor vehicles: The biggest difference between the terms “careless” and “reckless” comes from the motive behind the hazardous, negligent or unsafe driving. Someone driving ...


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