75

When I worked as a flight attendant back in the 80's we were told that water landings frequently resulted in very damaged trailing edges to the wings. Flaps and spoilers will most likely have been deployed prior to landing and the velocity of the water impacting these extended surfaces would tear them up badly, along with the hinges and fairings that ...


57

As soon as there's a fire on board, the absolute top priority is getting everybody out as soon as possible. Aircraft are designed in such a way that, even after a crash landing (or other serious malfunction), the passengers will have a minute or two to evacuate before conditions in the cabin become toxic (fire, smoke, etc); this is done by using flame-...


54

If the front seat ejected first, the drag would probably bring him too close in the trajectory of the rear seat, thus making a collision of both probable. Since the rear seat is ejected first, it experiences drag earlier than the front seat and will thus not have an increased probability of hitting it.


47

The only ‘realistic’ way of carrying out a full scale evacuation of an aircraft would be to put people in it and set it on fire. That said, FAA takes some efforts to keep the evacuation tests as realistic as possible without seriously endangering the safety of the 'passengers'. The FAA Advisory Circular 25.803-1A - Emergency Evacuation Demonstrations lays ...


47

There are two problems linked to the wind after accidents: Inflating the slides. Running away from the aircraft when on the ground @DavidRicherby listed the reasons related to running away upwind to try to avoid the effects of flames and fumes (visibility, heat, toxicity). This is part of the IATA guidelines for post-evacuation: Post-evacuation. Once ...


43

In general, in aircraft with tandem seating, the rear seat (having the Radar Officer) ejects first, followed by the forward (pilot) seat, after a delay of ~0.3 seconds. This is done for a few reasons: If the pilot seat is ejected first (or both are ejected simultaneously), there is a possibility that the pilot seat may collide (as it will be dragged ...


40

If there is a fire, any smoke and flames will blow downwind. If there is a fuel leak, the fuel vapours will be blown downwind, risking a fire or explosion there and potentially making it hard to breathe.


40

There is no automatic shutdown. However, shutting down the engines is part of the evacuation checklist done by the flight crew. It's happened before that the controls link was severed and an engine could not be shutdown, such as in Qantas Flight 32. Upon landing, the crew were unable to shut down the No. 1 engine, which had to be doused by emergency ...


27

Because they were told to evacuate there, if you take a look at the official audio transcript from the accident: place both arms through the straps and hug it to your chest. flight attendants are pointing out there are a total of eight exits on this aircraft, two door exits in front of the aircraft, four window exits over the wings, and two door ...


22

Before I start, remember that we're talking about statistics of location in the aircraft, within statistics of survival of an accident (95%), which is itself dependent on a statistic of particular type of accident (approx 85% have no fatalities at all), within something which is already a very unlikely event (an aviation accident). So let us for a moment ...


19

Just one angle I would like to add to these excellent answers. Passengers might be slow to get off because they want to retrieve their passports, driving licences, phones etc. This could well result in people at the back losing their lives as explained in the other answers on this post. But consider this: if people are on the aircraft, the fire service can'...


19

There is no general safe or unsafe seat rule - it really depends on the circumstances of any mishap. If the plane runs into a mountain, the rear seats give you more crush zone, so the deceleration is lower and stretched out over time to sustainable levels. However, if the plane comes in too low during landing and strikes ground first with the tail, those ...


17

Remember the Manchester airport fire... a major fire on the ground which led to the loss of over fifty passengers, partly due to smoke inhalation. These days a fire on board has to be taken very seriously. Just because you're on the ground doesn't mean you're safe! So, in your request for a list, there can only be one item on that list... that slowing down ...


16

This depends on the aircraft: DC9, MD80, B727, B737 On some (especially older model) aircraft doors such as the Boeing 737 for instance this is directly dangerous, since the slide is attached on the inside by hand with the means of a girt bar to the aircraft. There is hence no way to open the door without the slide going off should it be armed. There is ...


16

In such an extreme case, the row would be unoccupied. Nothing says that the row has to have people in it; I've had flights with under a dozen passengers, and if everybody had seats up front, the row would be empty, and that's okay. You can't have unqualified people in the Emergency Exit row -- that's the limitation. Nothing requires the FA's the move ...


16

Per the accident report from the NTSB, only the four exit slides (two at the forward doors and two at the aft doors) could be used as rafts, as the aircraft was configured for extended overwater operations (EOW). Regulations required there to be enough capacity for all passengers if the largest raft was not usable. Each slide/raft was rated for 44 passengers,...


15

The bottom of the door opening sits too close to, or below, the water line when the airplane is floating.


13

They are filled with carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. See here for reference. From the linked article: Slides inflate with an initial boost from a canister of compressed carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The canister provides only about one-third the volume needed to inflate the slides. The remaining volume is supplied by ambient air, channeled into ...


12

Passengers are usually asked to remove their high-heeled shoes during an emergency evacuation as they may damage the slide. In other cases, it is better to leave the shoes on during emergency as once you are outside, you're worse off without them. The usual policy is to remove only the high-heeled shoes. For example, FAA says: FAA Policy. The FAA believes ...


11

It all goes back to how the aircraft is designed; the ways different planes float vary. when the 737 ditches on water the tail-section of the plane is deeper in the water than front of it, because the wings are a huge floating point and support most of the weight of the aircraft when afloat, and the bigger front of the airplane contains more air so when ...


10

@ratchet freak is correct. The protrusions are canopy poles, where the canopy in the evacuation slide/raft is propped up. The image below shows a canopy propped on them. Image from tulmar.com From the document: The canopy is supported in the center in 4 places by inflatable yellow “CANOPY END SUPPORTS” and “CANOPY CENTER SUPPORTS”, and supported along ...


9

Given the scenario described, this is highly speculative but I'll have a go anyway. I assume that FEMA would be responsible for the overall evacuation and indeed their transportation annex says that the FAA's main responsibility in an emergency is limited to airspace management: DOT/Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responsible for the operation ...


9

Qualification: I am an FAA master parachute rigger and taught sport skydiving for 10 years. Most of the comments on the question are correct - the red slide will extend below the airplane and act as a wind buffer so you can clear the fuselage before the wind blast hits you. The yellow part is a cap that would be removed. No one would clip a static line to ...


9

I didn't do statistics, but The Aviation Herald lists units to low tens a year worldwide. Most of them happen at airport due to fire indication (sometimes even false) or smoke on board. On the ground, fire spreads a lot faster than while flying, because when flying, the wind is too strong and blowing the flames off. The most notable example would be China ...


9

I guess a lot of the emergency landings are because of engine failure so they aren't running anymore. That is not correct - there are many types of emergency landings: inoperative or stuck control surfaces, landing gear problems, bird strike, explosive decompression, etc. Engine failure is one of the failures people talk more about because it is easy to ...


8

Considering that the slide was not deployed, it is definitely unsuccessful. The MD-80 series (also the DC-9 and boeing 717) had tail cone assemblies which could be jettisioned in case of an emergency. When operated, the tailcone is expected to swing to the left of the fuselage due to to its own weight because of the way it was rigged. The jettison cone is ...


8

Those lights don't have to be mounted to the floor. They can also be seat mounted. http://www.bruceind.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=90:escape-path-lighting-systems&Itemid=189 http://www.astronics.com/_images/aircraft-safety/EPM%20033010.pdf This is the AC that provides guidance on the requirements of the system. http://www.faa.gov/...


8

An answer that I once received from a flight attendant (I don't remember the airline or plane model, it was long ago) was that in the event of a water landing passengers would be able to assist each other if they were all together. Thus, passengers leave by the front of the wings in the direction of the other usable exits. Otherwise, the wings would ...


7

Fluorescent (more specifically phosphorescent as the re-emission of absorbed light happens on a longer time scale) plastics are sometimes used for exit indicators as they're better than nothing when every other system fails, however they have some drawbacks that limit their usefulness, and so they're not relied on as a primary source of emergency ...


7

It became something of a meme: In the unlikely event of a water landing, your seat cushion can be used as a flotation device. You remove your seat cushion and hold the straps on the back as a flotation device. It's probably more of an aircraft/airline thing than by country. It seems that the industry is favoring life vests more, as they are designed to ...


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