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55 votes

Why did the Swiss International Air LX40 (a 777-300ER) emergency land at Iqaluit airport?

Given that the 777-300ER could have easily flown the remainder to LA with one engine -- which means it could have easily diverted to a nearby larger airport -- why didn't it? Standard operating ...
Jan Hudec's user avatar
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47 votes
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Why has the A340 not been fitted with only three engines?

Because the third engine would need to be near on centerline. That means in the tail. Putting the engine in the tail significantly changes its design requirements. Supporting an engine requires a ...
ratchet freak's user avatar
38 votes
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Why did the Swiss International Air LX40 (a 777-300ER) emergency land at Iqaluit airport?

Standard procedure for all twins is "nearest suitable airport" If you're in a twin, and an engine quits (especially over a remote area like the Arctic), you set a direct course for the nearest ...
UnrecognizedFallingObject's user avatar
34 votes
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Why ETOPS 207 minutes?

ETOPS 138 and 207 are 15% extensions of ETOPS 120 and 180. The reason for that is that with the ETOPS 120 rule, most of the Atlantic could be covered when using Kangerlussuaq (Greenland), Gander (...
DeltaLima's user avatar
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21 votes

Why has the A340 not been fitted with only three engines?

Adding engines to the wings allows the minimum amount of changes to be made to the aircraft. Adding a third engine would require re-designing the tail section, and shifting the CG considerably at the ...
kevin's user avatar
  • 39.8k
18 votes

ETOPS between Johannesburg, South Africa, and Perth, Australia

ETOPS originally was an acronym for Extended Twin Operations. While it has been changed to just Extended Operations, the focus is still on twin engine aircraft. South African Airways currently ...
fooot's user avatar
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14 votes
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Why was the A340 developed with four engines?

Hindsight is 20/20. At that time, nobody could be sure the ETOPS rule would be extended the way it eventually was. The 1985 extension was a gift from the FAA to Boeing, so US carriers could use the ...
Peter Kämpf's user avatar
14 votes

PRIM 1 FAULT prior to ETOPS entry, Reroute or Continue?

Since you are already airborne, the MMEL doesn't come into it. The system was normal when you dispatched. What applies is the QRH (Quick Reference Handbook). You should look for that particular ...
John K's user avatar
  • 132k
12 votes

Why ETOPS 207 minutes?

There is nothing specific as such. It was given mainly as an extension to the 180 min ETOPS in North Pacific Area on a case by case basis. From 14 CFR Part 121, Appendix P to Part 121 - Requirements ...
aeroalias's user avatar
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9 votes
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Does operation under ETOPS rules require additional procedures in flight during the ETOPS segment?

Most of the action for ETOPS flights takes place during planning and dispatch stages- the planning for alternate airports, gathering of weather reports for diversion cases etc. Before ETOPS entry ...
aeroalias's user avatar
  • 100k
9 votes
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How does an ETOPS APU start in-flight?

Some aircraft may have a special "ETOPS APU" that can be purchased, but many aircraft simply have THE APU that they come with. It is maintained to the standards required in the approved ETOPS program, ...
Ralph J's user avatar
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9 votes

Which current commercial flights have the highest ETOPS ranking?

Air New Zealand's Auckland (AKL) to Buenos Aires (EZE) is the longest ETOPS flight I know of, under ETOPS 330. It started in 2015: Air New Zealand completed the first flight approved for 330-minute ...
aeroalias's user avatar
  • 100k
7 votes
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Why do we have to check that the fuel x feed is properly functioning before departing for an ETOPS flight on the A320?

The main reason to check the Fuel-X-FEED on the ground before the flight is to allow the pilots to use the total fuel quantity on both wings in case of a single-engine failure during flying in ETOPS. (...
Islam Elsayed's user avatar
7 votes
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When do pilots facing bad weather turn back (U-turn)?

There is no definitive, objective, commonly agreed upon set of criteria that I am aware of that provides an answer to your question. Certainly airline dispatch departments strive to send aircraft ...
Terry's user avatar
  • 39.2k
7 votes
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Can the need for an engine overhaul affect the ETOPS rating?

Every time an engine is shut down in flight, it is tracked. Engine reliability does affect ETOPS certification. In addition to the aircraft being certified, each airline is also ETOPS certified. An ...
Mike Sowsun's user avatar
  • 37.8k
6 votes
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ETOPS 330 vs ETOPS 370 etc; how are the exact minute ratings derived?

If there is a formula currently used to generate an ETOPS time, no regulatory agency has made it public that I can tell. ETOPS originally grew out of a "60-minute rule" that was the result of earlier ...
Peter Schilling's user avatar
5 votes

Are there any restrictions on long overwater flights by private aircraft?

I am unable to find any ETOPS restrictions for private aircraft in the FAA FAR/AIM Part 91. The FAA Advisory Circular AC 91-70B is applicable for commercial aircraft operators. Anecdotally, general ...
Dean F.'s user avatar
  • 16.5k
5 votes

Why has the A340 not been fitted with only three engines?

Project decisions like this based on are return on investment for the manufacturer. In other words, what will sales revenue be compared costs to engineer, certify, manufacture, and support be ...
STWilson's user avatar
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4 votes
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Can any aircraft have ETOPS?

Theoretically anything can be certified if resources are allocated to meet certification requirements. It may not be practical though: The plane must have at least two engines (obviously) It must ...
kevin's user avatar
  • 39.8k
3 votes

Why has the A340 not been fitted with only three engines?

It only needs 2 engines. Twin engine jets have had ETOPS ratings for decades, 757, 767, 737, etc. The engines on modern planes are gigantic, 8 ft dia fans and provide 50,000 to 60,000 lbs thrust, so ...
stevie's user avatar
  • 39
3 votes
Accepted

Do ETOPS requirements vary between passenger, cargo, and non-revenue flights?

The ETOPS requirement is pretty much the same for all aircraft irrespective of usage as long as its under parts 121 or 135, as noted in the FAA InFO 07004, New ETOPS Regulations: The new ETOPS ...
aeroalias's user avatar
  • 100k
3 votes

What are the regulations for crossing the Atlantic in a twin engine prop plane

Aircraft operating under Part 91 have no ETOPS requirements. ETOPS is only applicable to Part 121 and Part 135 operations. FAR 121.161 only applies to operators of twin-engine turbine aircraft in ...
Juan Jimenez's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

How A330-200 or 243 would be much safer under the ETOPS terms?

ETOPS (Extended Twin Operations - at least that’s what it used to be called) is a set of rules comprising of flight planning, flight operations, aircraft maintenance, flight training and ...
Cpt Reynolds's user avatar
  • 4,807
2 votes

Why was the A340 developed with four engines?

From the Data I could find, including in the first answer, back at the time the A340 was developed- the standard for ETOPS was 120 minutes, thus making it more profitable to fly a 4 engine aircraft ...
Stan's user avatar
  • 443
2 votes

What does it take from the airlines to be ETOPS certified?

The requirements for ETOPS certification by the FAA are outlined in the following Advisory Circular: ETOPS QUALIFICATIONS. The unique nature of ETOPS necessitates an evaluation of these ...
Bianfable's user avatar
  • 56.6k
2 votes

Can an Indian operator get approval for ETOPS-120 without first getting approval for a lower ETOPS rating?

The short answer is yes (unless the DGCA has some unusual process with no public documentation). But be careful: the manufacturer does not certify an aircraft for ETOPS; only a regulatory agency can ...
Peter Schilling's user avatar
2 votes

Does operation under ETOPS rules require additional procedures in flight during the ETOPS segment?

Some airlines are required to keep their APU running en-route on an ETOPS mission. This probably only applies to 2 engine aircraft. The only one that doesn't that I am aware of is Alaska Airlines.
Greg 's user avatar
  • 373
1 vote

Are ETOPS rated planes denoted by a placard or other indicator?

DGCA India CAR Section 8 Series C Part I Para 5.1.2 (h) states: "A procedure is to be established, through cock-pit placard / external marking, to indicate to maintenance and flight crew EDTO status ...
charlie's user avatar
  • 11

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