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50

That could end up being a really bad idea if you've accelerated past your V1 speed -- your abort would then put you off the end of the runway, and the consequences from that range from bad to catastrophic. A much better idea would be to look at the markers on your airspeed indicator, and if you're at/above rotation speed, go ahead and rotate. Then sort out ...


27

The operating procedures for the four airlines I worked for (2 commuters and two 747 carriers) all called for the flying pilot (which would be the first officer if it was their leg) to retain control of the airplane until all relevant checklists had been accomplished. That said, it is, of course, the captain's prerogative to take control at any point. That ...


23

The regulatory bodies are reluctant in defining a regulation for that. Because there are first officers who do not hold an Airline Transport Pilot License. The airlines would need to add an extra flight member for that rare situation. Instead, it's up to each airline's SOP when it comes to Crew Resource Management. There are various assertiveness training ...


15

In airline operations, both pilots are trained to handle engine failures at any point during the flight, including during the takeoff. As far as who actually flies when it happens, it is a matter of the airlines SOP's and could be different from airline to airline. In general it is safer for whoever is flying when the engine fails to continue rather than ...


11

There was a case in 2012, where the captain started acting erratically on the flight deck. The first officer tricked him out of the cockpit and shut the door behind him. Passengers restrained the captain until an emergency landing could be made. In a more recent similar case, a captain was removed before the flight had ...


9

Firstly, "co-pilot" is not a term that is really used anymore. When people say that they usually mean the First Officer. It's a bugbear of mine because "co-pilot" implies that there is one real pilot and a half pilot, when the reality is an airliner needs at least two fully qualified pilots to fly it safely! When it comes to actually flying the plane, the ...


9

CRM is about making use of all available resources to safely conduct a flight. Pilots these days (even single pilot ops) have a wealth of resources available to them. Anything you can see and anyone you can talk to is a resource, and CRM is about making efficient use of those resources. Flying a light single you will have a subset of these resources: ...


8

In the end it's all up to the Captain. If the FO is PF, which with most airlines alternates with each leg of a block, and something exciting happens, the capt may let the FO continue flying if the capt feels the FO has things under control. Or the capt may say "I have control" and take over. Depends. The Pilot In Command is pilot in command. He/she ...


8

It is very, very complicated. It is so complicated that an entire department is dedicated to this task. Below I would provide a glimpse of crew rostering. Basics Most airlines provide roster on a monthly basis. The flights that will be flown are well planned beforehand. From this, a minimum number of crew must be on each flight, for example a Captain, a ...


8

CRM is not just crew anymore - it's now typically referred to as "Cockpit Resource Management" (or in some cases, when no crew is present, as "Single-Pilot Resource Management") and it's something the FAA emphasizes on all checkrides. CRM includes all resources available to any pilot. In a typical light GA aircraft this means checklists, instruments, gauges,...


7

Typically, both pilots will set up "their" stuff as prescribed in the airline SOP's, and then the checklist will be called for. At my airline, the captain has certain switches that he sets and certain systems that he checks -- generally things on his side of the overhead panel along with his flight instruments -- and the FO does likewise. The FO performs ...


7

This question has been asked and answered in a slightly different form at How able were pilots of three-person cockpits at running the normal FE work?, and I refer you to that for basic info. Concerning the detail in your question: What difficulties would the pilots face for the remainder of the flight, including navigation and landing, with no one ...


7

Your question's title says "commercial aviation", and in the question you indicate you're interested in the history. With that in mind, I'll add to Ben's excellent answer. Commercial aviation includes not just airline but also non-airline flying, including corporate flying. In corporate flying, the duties of the co-pilot varied greatly depending on what the ...


6

As with everything it varies from airline to airline, but for the most part it is option 2). Larger carriers will usually give pilots the option of blacklisting another if they wish, but smaller airlines with only a few dozen pilot combinations might just tell the pilot to suck it up. The airline will also avoid placing a brand new FO with a brand new ...


5

The responsibility of checking the FMA after a mode-change is not the PM's alone. If the PF calls for VNAV, the PM will select VNAV, now both of them need to check VNAV is active. Regarding aural alerts, there are already alerts to when the flight deviates from the norm, for example an altitude warning (which doubles as approaching target altitude), stick ...


5

The benefits gained from CRM are not really applicable to a single pilot situation although solo pilots can apply CRM Ideals in their own regard. This FAA study touches upon it well in this study (numbers provided in the figures on page 2 of the study) Concern with the factors underlying these accidents led NASA researchers in the 1970s to conduct a ...


5

There are risks either case. There are no hard rules for or against calling a pilot from the cabin for help; it is up to the pilot to evaluate the situation and select the best course of action. The risk of landing solo is greatly increased workload, which increases the chances of human error. There are quite a few things to attend to when flying an ...


4

Crew Resource Management started out in the 70s as an attempt to eliminate human error but over time it's undergone a number of iterations and today the concepts have accepted reality and assume errors can't be eliminated, only mitigated. Modern CRM tries to mitigate errors by attempting to require multiple errors to stack up in an improbable way before ...


2

CRM training which I have been exposed to consists of lecture/videos to cover principles and expand on them with techniques. There may be some classroom exercises. However, due to the way that most training is conducted, the "classroom" is usually small numbers. The application of CRM is in the simulator (SIM), where evaluation of techniques can be ...


1

A student of mine, who has a background in industrial engineering and is an emergency medicine physician, has morphed his career to include the application of CRM into emergency medicine and operating room procedures. The health industry has in general been moving that way because it is saving lives and lawsuits. Several people have published retrospective ...


1

The short answer is no. Otherwise it's mutiny. That said it's exceptionally rare where one has to take control from the Captain, but not so much the Captain taking over from the F/O. The F/O is second in command of a ship. As such has a moral and legal responsibility to his Captain and to his charges. (F/A and pax). If, the Captain is unable to carry out his ...


1

Seems that this has happened multiple times if there is something wrong with the Captains behaviour. If he is doing something that clearly endangers the flight, the remaining crew will at least attempt remove him from duty before its too late, regardless if there are rules defined for that or not. Japan Airlines Flight 350 can be an example. If the reasons ...


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