Runways that are not open for use (for instance, due to construction or obstruction).
Closed runways are runways that are not currently available to use for takeoff or landing (except possibly in an emergency).
Runways can become closed for many reasons, including, but not limited to:
- The airport that the runway is located at being closed (temporarily or permanently).
- Maintenance being performed on the runway.
- An object or objects blocking the runway, such as a herd of cattle or a crashed airplane.
- Weather conditions making the runway unsafe to use.
- Political considerations, such as excessive noise levels in residential areas caused by aircraft taking off from or landing at the runway.
- Damage to the runway surface.
- The runway being rendered redundant by a newer runway somewhere else at the airport.
- A decrease in traffic to and from the airport, reducing the number of runways needed for airport-operations.