10

In the US, an appropriate instrument rating is needed to fly when WX conditions are below VFR minimums, and at night for SVFR. 14 CFR 61.3(e) Additionally, one needs an appropriate instrument rating to fly under an IFR clearance when in controlled airspace, regardless of the WX. Notes: ATP and things like a category and class in an airship are exceptions. ...


9

This is easier to explain in reverse: rather than why there is so much class G airspace there, why is there so much class E airspace everywhere else? Remember, all airspace is class G unless it has been designated something higher. Wind your clock back to the early days of aviation, and the entire country was class G! However, that isn't very safe, ...


9

Here's the example from the FAA's Airplane Flying Handbook (chapter 7): If there are no other aircraft present, the pilot should check traffic indicators on the ground and wind indicators to determine which runway and traffic pattern direction to use. [Figure 7-2] Many airports have L-shaped traffic pattern indicators displayed with a segmented ...


9

An airport in class G airspace can have an operating control tower. This is a case of a towered airport in uncontrolled airspace. The airspace is uncontrolled but tower communication must be established within a certain distance and for use of the airports runways. There are applicable regulations that address this situation. 14 CFR §91.126 (d) requires ...


8

You can't know with 100% accuracy, even radio altimeters have limitations, and if you're flying on a PPL the aircraft probably wouldn't have one anyway. The VFR pilot flies with a map which shows the height of the highest terrain and noteworthy landmarks, but unless you are directly over one of these it is a matter of your experience in judging vertical ...


7

I'm not aware of any regulation or AIM entry that specifies what frequency to be on. I use the UNICOM frequency of the nearest airport when I'm out looping because I consider it to be the frequency most likely to be used by traffic near me. It also has a mild safety benefit -- if something on my plane were to break, I'd already be on the right frequency ...


6

4.2.6 Right-hand traffic When displayed in a signal area, or horizontally at the end of the runway or strip in use, a right-hand arrow of conspicuous colour (Figure A1-9) indicates that turns are to be made to the right before landing and after take-off. Figure A1-9 Source: ICAO Annex 2, Rules of the Air


6

MULTICOM is used when operating in the vicinity of an airport that has no tower, no FSS, and no UNICOM so wouldn't be appropriate here. There is an air-to-air frequency (122.75) but most pilots don't monitor it unless they have a specific reason to (i.e. someone else that they want to talk to).1 You can listen to the closest airport or approach control ...


6

Well, sort of. In Class G airspace you often find ATZs. This is airspace 2nmi radius to 2,000ft around an aerodrome that is controlled by the aerodrome so take-off and landings. They are often not surrounded by Class-A or Class-D airspace and just control the immediate area around the aerodrome, and are full ATC unit, although sometimes only an AFIS. So, ...


6

I bumped into this thread and was disappointed to see that no one was able to actually answer your question. Why you are avoiding Class E, whether 1200' AGL is unsafe, and the ins and outs of your flight planning are all subjective. After 19 months I figure you probably know the answer yourself, but I wanted to post a solution for anyone who might run into ...


6

The first answer above resolves the initial portion of your question. The second part of your question involves the issues discussed in the NTSB case (NTSB Order No. EA-3935) found by following your link (https://www.ntsb.gov/legal/alj/OnODocuments/Aviation/3935.pdf). In this case, the court decided that although aircraft operations without an ATC ...


5

You can also fly Ifr without a clearance in G. Remember that the entire purpose of airspace is to keep us from hitting airliners. It is not about keeping GA planes apart. When you look at wx mins that is clear. The FAA gives us the freedom to fly around in low vis so long as we stay out of the areas you'd find airliners. -Robert CFII


5

As a practical matter, sans radio altimetry or synthetic vision, you don't have any way to determine your AGL en route accurately. Why do you want to use Class E for en route flying? In the U.S. neither Class E nor G require an ATC clearance, but both require adherence to VFR flight rules. However, the VFR daytime flight visibility for Class G is only 1 mile ...


5

As long as the flight climbs above 1,200’ AGL before exiting the area where class E begins at the surface, the whole flight is conducted in class E airspace until descending below 1,200’ AGL on the approach to the KKIC airport. The point of confusion I think is where you've read that class G airspace goes up to 14,500 MSL. Class G Airspace within the ...


5

In class G you are not under Air Traffic Control and therefor you don't receive instructions. You may be receiving an Air Traffic Information Service and they will provide you with advisories. Advisories are not covered by 91.123, and thus within class G airspace 91.123 does not apply.


4

Great question. The short answer to your question is "Full Time." Ultimately that Class D airspace will be incorporated into the LAX Class B, but there is a lot of red tape involved so step one was to add the Class D extensions, then it will be incorpoated into LAX Class B at a later date. Its a big deal, Title 14 CFR Part 71 had to be amended, ...


4

Airspace classifications above G exist to protect commerce. (The FAA exists to protect commerce.) That is primarily IFR operations, as well as carriers and others that utilize ATC services. The protections include around congested airports (towers, radar service areas) and airspace for route structures. Just 50 years ago, there was much more uncontrolled ...


4

By definition, Class G is uncontrolled airspace so the only separation you will receive there comes from using your Mk I eyeballs and good judgment. A controller is not going to dispatch you to hold in uncontrolled airspace.


3

Historically there was much more uncontrolled airspace in CONUS. There is less but it exists. 14500 is the old continental control area, sometimes called the continental control shelf. It was designed with the highest natural obstruction in CONUS in mind. In uncontrolled airspace IFR operations could be conducted without ATC involvement. I used to do this ...


3

The whole flight is in Class E airspace once above 1,200 FT AGL. The reason is that the Blue shaded line is so hard to find. It's easier to find Class G airspace upto 14,5000 FT MSL on a IFR low enroute chart. See this excerpt from Skyvector. Notice the brown shaded area. Click on the Phoenix sectional and see the blue shaded line. https://skyvector.com/...


3

The "L"-shaped marks near the tetrahedron or wind tee — adjoining the "segmented circle" — show the traffic pattern direction. Intended to be viewed from above, not from ground level. http://www.flightlearnings.com/2011/12/16/wind-direction-indicators/ The figure above indicates "left traffic" (left turns) when taking off or landing to the north, right ...


3

Yes you are in Class G at that location. The shaded red band indicates the floor of Class E airspace extends down to 700 AGL at that location, and the floor of theshelf of Class B airspace is 1900 MSL above you. The ground elevation is roughly 640 MSL according to the tower data nearby. I agree that a call to the tower to verify would be prudent.


3

Provided the drone is flying where the red dot is, you are correct and Class G extends from the surface to 700 ft AGL. If you really wanted to play it safe, call the tower at KBKL to establish two way radio comms before flying there.


2

This answer will be aimed at the US. Why does on various images, such as below, have 1200' and 700' AGL for Class G Airspace? The "1200' AGL" and "700' AGL" labels are simply stating the altitude where the figure is intending to show that the Class G airspace ends and the Class E airspace begins, at different locations. Note that it is ...


2

I can only speak as to the situation in the US, I don't know what the rules are elsewhere. When operating at an untowered airfield in the US you're not actually required to have a radio at all. Thus all those restored vintage biplanes and other radioless aircraft can operate perfectly legally from an untowered field without having to get any kind of special ...


2

Yes, you're reading the chart correctly. Either your drone's GPS is off by quite a bit, or it was deliberately designed to be overly sensitive so that you couldn't accidentally fly into nearby controlled airspace.


2

Class D and above require good weather, and permission, to enter. Class E airspace requires good weather only. Class G airspace requires not much. That's the benefit/difference of Class G.


1

All airspace was originally uncontrolled. Then planes started crashing into each other, especially in bad weather, and someone got the bright idea of having controllers to track where planes were and keep them separated. Yay! Those controllers expect to be paid and need radar/radio equipment, though, so it was only done where there was enough danger to ...


1

As far as I can tell, according to the AIM 4-1-11 you should use 122.9, which is described as follows (my emphasis): (MULTICOM FREQUENCY) Activities of a temporary, seasonal, emergency nature or search and rescue, as well as, airports with no tower, FSS, or UNICOM. The words "as well as" indicate that it isn't just for use around airports, and ...


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