20

This is a great question. For those who are unfamiliar, and in areas where airspace is complex, it’s sometimes useful to look at the VFR Flyway Chart. This is the one on the back of FAA Terminal Area Charts. The dashed blue outlines surround the crazy cutouts that are Seattle’s Class D airspaces. Why does KBFI stick into the KSEA Class B? Class D airports, ...


17

The answer has to do with ATC's separation requirements. In Class D airspace, VFR aircraft are not afforded any kind of separation. Mandatory traffic advisories and safety alerts are provided between VFR/VFR and VFR/IFR traffic. In Class C airspace, VFR aircraft are provided target resolution laterally ("dots don't touch") or 500' vertically ...


16

The AIM covers this from an operations / legal standpoint: 3-2-5. Class D Airspace 4. Departures from: (a) A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two‐way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class D ...


13

You are responsible for staying on frequency as long as you are in the class D space, UNLESS you are granted an early frequency change. Once you leave Class D, you are free to change frequencies without notice. If its a busy area, many controllers will still give you traffic advisories as long as you're nearby, and its reasonable to stay on frequency until ...


10

What is the appropriate way to handle this situation as a pilot? First, tell tower about the problem. They may be able to assign you a different runway, have you loiter (circle) for a minute or three, etc. It's likely not the first time this has ever happened. If necessary ask the tower for a Special VFR clearance. That changes your cloud clearance ...


10

The area inside those lines is class E from the surface.


9

No it is not required to contact approach. Unless you have to go through a larger D, C or B airspace to get there. I don't know of any larger Ds in the US, but there are plenty of D-airfields underneath C and B airspace. In Germany (and I think around Europe, not sure though), there's a distinction between the tower-D and the approach-D (the former being ...


9

Due to the ongoing runway incursion epidemic, US ATC must hear every aircraft read back certain instructions, including callsign. If you don’t read them back correctly, they’re required to repeat the instruction until you do. No matter how many times it takes. When this rule was first adopted (or at least enforced), a shocking number of pilots couldn’t give ...


8

The Class D airspace surrounding the Olive Branch airport extends upward to 2900 feet msl, excluding the Class B airspace. So, your understanding is correct. Here is the official description of this Class D airspace from FAA Order 7400.11, Airspace Designations and Reporting Points: (emphasis is mine) ASO MS D Olive Branch, MS Olive Branch Airport,...


8

Its an area of Class-E airspace used for Instrument Approach Procedures. From The Pilot Handbook, Chapter 14, Airspace: Class D airspace is generally airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class D airspace area ...


8

For a large class B complex, the same approach control frequency may be working aircraft both inside and outside the B, with some of those outside the B in a class C or D. Establishing communication with ATC is sufficient to enter the C or D unless the controller says no, but you still have to keep out of the B unless they say yes. If the rule were the same ...


7

@Pondlife I suppose it's possible there's an airport somewhere with Class D airspace that REQUIRES you to call approach before you can call the tower, even for VFR flights, but I can't think of any off hand. That would certainly be an unusual situation though: I'd expect a NOTAM about the procedure at the very least.– voretaq7Dec 25 at 7:05 Required is too ...


7

You should contact the tower of the Delta you intend on transitioning through/entering first. Tell them you want to transition through their airspace. If they clear you to enter their airspace you can request a frequency change while still inside the first delta and contact the second. This is the same procedure as say departing a Delta that abuts a Bravo ...


7

I think you are mis-interpreting the answer, you should remain outside Class-D until the flow of traffic can be acertained. If you lose comms outside of a Class-B or Class-C, you should not enter that airspace, instead divert to a Class-D or E airport if possible. If you are already inside the B/C airspace, continue, but don't enter. Class-A is different, as ...


5

This looks odd to me. The supplement (3 Jan 2019) does indicate class D operations: AIRSPACE: CLASS D svc 1200–0400Z‡ other times CLASS E. But the current (August 2018) Airspace Designations and Reporting Points doesn't list class D airspace for it, only class E. This matches the sectional shown. When I look at another part-time airport (like Drake ...


5

According to the sectional chart, Class D airspace does not extend into the restricted area. SkyVector KINS Sectional Chart The restricted airspace starts at the surface to an unlimited altitude. According the JO 7400_11A.pdf, Class D does not enter the restricted area. Class E airspace is the same.


5

Aviation can be very unforgiving at times. One of the ways to deal with that are so-called idiot proof systems. Checklists are a good example. The reason we use them is not to help us remember what to do, but to make it impossible for us to forget what to do, as long as we can get ourselves to remember to use the checklists. "Read back all instructions&...


4

To expand a little more on what @rbp said, the VFR Sectional Note is referring to the Class D and Class E (sfc) designations. So, when referring the the Chart Supplement, which says AIRSPACE: CLASS D svc (1200-0500Z) other times CLASS G they are referring to the Class D and Class E (sfc) specifically—just as @rbp said. Now consider what the next level of ...


4

Out of courtesy, you MAY contact approach when VFR, but it is by no means necessary. Judging by the 86th issue of the Green Bay sectional, it is not even obvious that radar services are available. The procedure would be to listen to ATIS on 124.1 and contact tower before entering the class D. I believe this is true even if you are flying into a class D ...


4

The procedure in the linked answer assumes you're VFR. If you're in class A airspace, that means you must be IFR, and there are specific (and somewhat different) procedures for IFR flights that lose radio communications--which may include landing at a class A/B/C airport. VFR pilots without radios should stick to class D/E airports, which are a lot more ...


4

The class D airspace you are referring to is a control zone (CTR). According to article 24 of Regulation for Remotely Piloted Aerial Vehicles, the following applies to VLOS operations (emphasis mine): Except as required by point 6 below, RPAS operations shall not be conducted: a) within ATZ and beneath take-off and landing paths or at a distance less than ...


4

Great question. The short answer to your question is "Full Time." Ultimately that Class D airspace will be incorporated into the LAX Class B, but there is a lot of red tape involved so step one was to add the Class D extensions, then it will be incorpoated into LAX Class B at a later date. Its a big deal, Title 14 CFR Part 71 had to be amended, ...


4

JO 7400.2L, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters, describes how the size of Class D airspace is determined. Per paragraph 17−2−5. DETERMINING CLASS D AREA SIZE: The size of a Class D area, and any necessary extensions, is determined by the use of a 200 feet per NM climb gradient and information obtained from the person responsible for developing ...


4

To answer the question in the title, the AIM 4-3-2 says: When operating at an airport where traffic control is being exercised by a control tower, pilots are required to maintain two-way radio contact with the tower while operating within the Class B, Class C, and Class D surface area unless the tower authorizes otherwise. Initial callup should be made ...


4

The triangular area you’re referring to is actually the LAX class D airspace. The heliport itself is uncontrolled. It is not that uncommon for an uncontrolled heliport or airport to be within the surface area of a controlled airport. Departing aircraft are required to contact tower as soon as practical after takeoff, and arriving aircraft are told that ...


4

The answer is the same in theory: you just tell ATC what you want to do, and they either approve it (possibly with some modifications) or deny it. Since all VFR services are on a “workload permitting” basis, which answer you get may depend on when you ask. The only difference in practice is that class B airspace tends to be a lot busier than class C, which ...


4

Class B is expected to be a busier airspace. The difference between "ATC can deny clearance" and "you must get explicit clearance" is huge in that context. Typically Class B surrounds major airports. If you just told ATC you're there and came on in, what if ATC was too busy to notice? The chances of a near collision incident or worse is ...


4

The difference boils down to the likelihood that you’ll be in the way of IFR traffic—and how easily ATC can solve that problem. A typical class C or D airport may see only a few hundred (C) or a few dozen (D) IFR operations per day, so the odds are you won’t be in anyone’s way when you pass through. In the rare cases that you are, ATC can easily vector you ...


3

Separation requirements depend on the class of airspace, per ICAO Annex 11. Class D: VFR aircraft are not separated from any other aircraft. ATC only provides traffic information about VFR aircraft. Note the separation can be done visually. Considering the size of the typical class D airspace, this is the usual method for multiple VFR aircraft in the area. ...


3

I agree that SVFR is easiest way to deal with this situation. However, sometimes controllers resist going through trouble of SVFR when its just one or two puffy clouds in the pattern and the reported weather is VFR. They don't care about one cloud. Its not their responsibility for you keeping your cloud clearances. Especially when weather is reported as VFR....


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