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19

T is used to signify that the top of Class C airspace that lies under Class B is the bottom surface of that airspace. This is important when the Class C segment lies under multiple layers of Class B, where no single top altitude applies.


14

Lets back up a minute and discuss what is required to enter C and D airspace. For C and D airspace you must establish 2 way radio communications with tower or approach controller. Let's first discuss how this works if you are not taking Flight Following. As you approach Class C airspace you hail them and wait for a response, for example, You: "...


14

Yes, you were allowed to enter the class C in that case, but you weren't cleared to do it because no clearance is needed to operate in class C, just communication with ATC. The AIM 3-2-4 has the best explanation of this (see also the basic regulation in 14 CFR 91.130): If the controller responds to a radio call with, “(air craft callsign) standby,” ...


9

You can start many "what does this thing on an FAA chart mean" questions with the FAA's Aeronautical Chart User's Guide. It doesn't go into a deep explanation, but does show it as an example in this case. The symbol can be found on page 17 of the 2018 guide. The figure at left identifies a sector that extends from the surface to the base of the Class B....


8

You have to differentiate between a clearance which has a specific regulatory definition that is covered by numerous FARs, and the regulation which requires you to establish 2-way communication before operating in Class C or Class D. If you hear your numbers, you have established 2-way communication, and that's it. Its not a clearance, as defined by the ...


7

Just talk to the controllers. We live under a Class B with several underlying Class C or D fields. They'll talk to you. They'd rather know what you're planning to do than not, keeps everyone safer.


6

Since the Class C airspace is sandwiched between the surface and the shelves of the nearby Class B airspace, the T indicates that the upper limit of the ClassC surface area is on the bottom of the overhead Class B shelf.


6

I fly out of a controlled satellite class D (KLOU, Bowman Field) below a class C (KSDF, Louisville International) so I'm fairly familiar with this scenario, at least in the way that it's handled there. The short story - in my experience - is that Approach only cares about you having the numbers or ATIS for the airport where you'll actually land. First the ...


5

No clearance is required for VFR Flight in Class C airspace. It is however required to establish two way radio communications (FAR 91.130). The most common interpretation I've come across is that as long as ATC have responded with your callsign, you have established two way radio communications, and are therefore free to enter, unless instructed to remain ...


4

As per JO 7110.65W ATC, Section 2-1-16 SURFACE AREAS, when you are in contact with ATC, you do not need to specifically ask for authorization to enter a towered service area: The pilot is not expected to obtain his/her own authorization through each area when in contact with a radar facility


3

From the standpoint of the GR Class C airspace, your only choices are to go around Lowell or call GR Terminal for clearance into Class C to go over it, if you want to be legal overflight-wise. Me, I generally avoid terminal airspace when at all possible when piddling around VFR, so it's a no brainer to just deke around it.


3

There is no such thing as "Class C radar service". "Class C airspace" and "radar service" are mostly orthogonal. "Flight Following" is just shorthand for getting radar service when you're not required to. Terminal areas around a Class C airport generally comprise a 5-mile "inner ring", 10-mile "outer ring" and 20-mile "outer area". Approach is guaranteed ...


2

Either C or D controllers will likely accept your requested heading, which can be given as a rough compass point, on initial contact. This contact will be after picking up the terminal info on ATIS, when you contact ground. Your preferred direction will be passed up the chain. A class D may tell you something like "cleared for takeoff, Northbound departure ...


2

A non-standard pattern altitude would be in the Chart Supplement (formerly A/FD). Nothing is listed, so it's the expected 1700ft. Overflight is 500ft above pattern altitude to maintain proper separation. Any closer than this (aside from formation flight) is unsafe and could get you violated. Don't do that. There's no need to monitor CTAF while you're talking ...


1

A radio and a transponder. As a pre-solo student, you really DO need to know this. If it is not familiar to you, I strongly recommend you read up on your airspace classes.


1

Since you are already in radio contact with the ATC agency that controls the Charlie airspace (aka Approach), you are already allowed to enter it. (If Approach doesn't want you in their Charlie, they'll say so: "N12345, remain outside the Charlie".)


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