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30

Surface 1 is a horizontal stabilizer with elevator, just the same as on any other aircraft with a T tail arrangement. Surface 2 is called a rear strake or a tail fin. There is one on each side of the fuselage. They provide extra stability during operation at high angles of attack when the fuselage is disturbing the airflow to the vertical tail. They are ...


29

A number of things happen when you rotate the canards by 90°, and in no way I see how these could be addressed by not too many modifications 1. Transient Once you land, you need a certain amount of time to rotate the canards. During this time the canards will not produce a perfectly horizontal force, but it will have also a vertical component. Whether ...


29

If it were so simple ... To achieve natural longitudinal stability (the aircraft stays at the trimmed speed, even after disturbances like gusts), the rear lifting surfaces need to have a lower lift per area than the forward surfaces. Why? In a gust, the aircraft's angle of attack changes on all surfaces nearly at the same time. By having less lift per area, ...


28

Short answer: Canards make most sense with negative static stability and high maneuverability. Commercial aircraft don't need either, so a conventional layout works best. For a statically stable aircraft, the conventional layout gives most efficiency with sufficient damping. Static stability requires that the forward lifting surfaces create more lift ...


16

The canards on the Tu-144 weren't canards technically. They were static surfaces, not moving. They were purely lift devices to improve low speed handling (and thus help reduce landing speed which was excessively high). These were added because low speed handling was found to be deficient, due to the inferior (as compared to Concorde) wing design.


16

In aeronautics, a canard is a small wing that is located in front of the main wing of the aircraft. This is similar to the elevator, but is located in front of the wing, instead of behind it. The configuration,and in some cases, the aircraft itself may be called a canard. From Merriam- Webster dictionary: an airplane with horizontal stabilizing and ...


15

Your Google search has apparently had too much wine and can only speak French :) The relevant dictionary definition is: Aeronautics. an airplane that has its horizontal stabilizer and elevators located forward of the wing. Also called canard wing. One of two small lifting wings located in front of the main wings. A picture, however, is worth ...


13

Because it is not aerodynamically efficient. To achieve stability the forward surface has to fly at higher angle of attack than the rear. So the canard has to fly at rather high angle of attack which leads to high drag and disrupts airflow for the main wing further reducing it's efficiency. It is not a chance that most modern jets have the same layout. It is ...


13

Why would you fly with a deployed spoiler when you can have a clean aircraft? Sure, there are many canard kit plane designs, but when you look closer at their performance, its is not improved by the location of the elevator. Burt Rutan would always choose a higher wing loading than required to fulfill the FAR part 23 requirements for low speed, so his ...


11

From Wikipedia: The Rockwell B-1 Lancer has small canard vanes or fins on either side of the forward fuselage that form part of an active damping system that reduces aerodynamic buffeting during high-speed, low altitude flight. Such buffeting would otherwise cause crew fatigue and reduce airframe life during prolonged flights. Having a traditional ...


9

A canard can mean both, the horizontal control surface placed at the forward end of an airplane and the whole airplane of this configuration itself. Also, the term canard configuration is used to distinguish it from a conventional configuration. The term comes indeed from the French word for ducks, since they also have a relatively rear wing location when ...


7

Good catch! You are right, the center of gravity will be too much forward for a canard. If they put the prop on the sting behind the wing and the cockpit a bit ahead of the wing, things would look more credible. The size of the foreplane is not obviously wrong, but the booms at the tips of the foreplane look strange. They serve no obvious purpose, like the ...


7

This highly depends on the overall conceptual design of the aircraft and there is no ideal configuration for any flight mission profile, except if you have very specific design constraints that will favor one configuration over another. In general, the trend when designing a wing of high aerodynamic efficiency, one that you would need for feasible human ...


4

There are two general configurations for canard wings, the long coupled and the short coupled canards. From Torenbeek: Long coupled canard. This configuration is designed for minimal drag in cruise. The canard wing is placed far forward of the main wing in order to reduce interference drag. Vertical position is higher than the main wing to reduce adverse ...


4

One good reason, is that airliners have main wings with flaps galore dropping down to increase the coefficient of lift at slow speeds. This also greatly increases the nose-down pitch moment, which must now be countered by the already highly loaded canard. Canard stall then becomes the limiting factor on approach speed. You either need to have a less loaded ...


4

Sean I have no idea where you got the idea that the horizontal tail on a conventional aircraft lifts up, like a canard surface but at the opposite end, and can therefore stall and let the nose rise. It's exactly backwards. The tail lifts down. When the airplane stalls, the center of lift of the main wing shifts sharply aft creating a strong nose down ...


4

It did not need them. Concorde could operate from most commercial airports and did not need especially long runways. Retractable canards add drag and the mechanism is a point of failure. I fail to see how Tu-144 canards is a “superior” feature as they were added to support a less effective wing. Very much related: Why is the Tu-144 the only commercial ...


4

Actually, for most tasks it would be most helpful to add the horizontal tail and to remove the canard. There have been only a few canard designs and even fewer three-wing designs in the past. Off-hand I remember just two: Voisin-Farman biplane in the Musée d'l Air in Paris (picture source) Gabriel Voisin was the founder of the first commercial aircraft ...


4

The expression is shorthand for canard wing(s), small lifting surfaces mounted in front of the main wings on certain planes. Incidentally, many (all?) current European fighter jets have this configuration, and you may therefore occasionally see references to "Euro-canards" as a general group of European-developed fighter jets, such as Eurofighter Typhoon, ...


4

Why there so many pitch control surfaces on the Piaggio P180 Avanti? You mark 3 surfaces, but only one is movable, i.e. there is only one pitch control surface on the P180, not "so many". what is that device (number 2 in the picture), what is that name, and what is that for? Don't know the name myself, but it is there to guide the airflow around the ...


4

No. 2 is a ventral strake and No. 3 is a canard. Neither have actuated control surfaces on the P.180. The ventral strakes are there to provide additional directional stability and the canards provide a more direct longitudinal balance and control, alleviating tailplane loads, and improving low speed handling. The Avanti was built for speed (400 KTAS in a ...


3

The canard flap is like any other control surface in the trailing edge of a canard. The canard flaps are there mainly for trimming the aircraft. At transonic speeds, the center of pressure of the aircraft moves rearward, resulting in instability. This could be countered by trimming with the elevons; however, this increases the angle of attack (the elevon ...


3

Short answer? The Wright Brothers. The term was coined to describe the Santos-Dumont 14-bis, as its design with a box-like array of forward control surfaces looked like a duck in flight, but the very first successful powered aircraft was a similar canard biplane with a pusher engine. As planes developed after the Wrights' first flight, this design fell out ...


3

The canard is a design which stabilizes in front but also adds lift, whereas elevators at the back actually subtract lift. As the Voyager needed to take energy efficiency to the extreme, this would be a prime design choice. His motivation may be in the book written about the Voyager, but a significant number of his designs were canards.


3

Would the stopping distance perhaps increase instead of decrease from using the canard as an air brake? My career involved stopping performance calculations for conventional airliners rather than delta wing configurations, but it seems that with existing landing technique you are getting a lot of drag benefit from the angle of attack of that big inefficient ...


2

If it is a canard, the assumption of a well thought out design is doubtful. Yes, dihedral will add to directional instability and require a bigger tail, but at least in case of the glider the vertical is sized for countering adverse yaw, so the bit of canard instability is easily compensated. My direct response would be: To lift the core of the canard wake ...


2

There are a number of near-copies of the Long EZ, with nearly identical wing and canard shape; they differ in number of seats, performance, range, and, yes, several of them have retractable gear. I think there's at least one that's pressurized. Without a high quality photo (possibly even with one, if shot from the ground), it may be impossible to determine ...


2

None other than the great Clarance Kelly Johnson had similar thoughts in the 1930s, before testing validated the advantages of rear mounted stabilizers. The Achilles heel of canard designs was that once relative wind shifted to beneath the aircraft at high AoA, the lower surface of the canard acts as a lever to push the nose up even further. The US Army ...


2

Well the Tu-144 was one example of an airliner which made use of canards. The design configuration has been proposed before for large transports such as Boeing's ill-fated Sonic Cruiser. And I suppose if you consider other, smaller aircraft, like the Paiggio P.180 Avanti for use in Part 121 and Part 135 operations, the that configuration is used often. ...


2

The Suntoucher solar aircraft design looks fine to me. A key note: this is a solar electric powered aircraft using an AC electric motor to turn the prop. Therefore the stinger section of the fuselage would contain batteries, adding much weight in the area of the wing, putting the CG near the prop on the wing side. Also with the prop mounted, and spinning on ...


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