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4

Below is a cross section of the skin around the passenger windows of a Boeing 747-100 (N602US). It's 2 layers, each layer is ~.075" thick. This is the first iteration of the 747 (50 years ago) so might be different on later series as they improved the design and reduced weight. Source: own work


2

For skins in the upper half of the fuselage in bending tension, the pressure acting on the skin is just adding to the tension stress on the skin from fuselage bending, so it doesn't help there. For skins and stringers in areas of the fuselage where loads are in compression, the pressure if anything will displace the structure (bulge it out) in effect "...


3

Yes you simply fly with the pressurization system set to a mode that holds the outflow valve open so the air conditioning air being pumped in can't "inflate" the cabin; it all just goes overboard. Most transport aircraft have a specific QRH procedure for "unpressurized flight", which among other things, limits the maximum altitude to 10000 ft, the altitude ...


2

The pressurization system uses a controller that manages pressure changes for the least impact on the passenger. This means avoiding sudden changes and keeping the rate of change as low as possible, generally between 100 and 300 fpm, and never more than 500 fpm (about the most most people will tolerate without complaint) while the airplane is going 2000-...


3

During descent, the rate of change of pressure inside the cabin of a pressurized aircraft is lower than outside (ambient). Inside the aircraft, under active control the cabin pressure increases from equivalent ~8000ft above sea level to ground level. In the meantime, the aircraft descends from cruising altitude which is typically much higher, also to ...


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