74

The reason was to give the bombs the place close to the center of gravity. Wing sweep (for high cruise Mach numbers) in combination with a high aspect ratio of the wing (for low induced drag) made it impossible to place the landing gear in the wing, so it had to be integrated into the fuselage. The main landing gear normally needs to be close to the center ...


73

When aircraft fly inside clouds, they fly under "instrument rules". It doesn't matter whether the visibility is reduced (at night) or totally blocked (in a thick cloud), this mode of flying simply assumes the crew has no external visual reference, they fly solely using indications given by on-board instruments. The following short video shows a situation ...


67

Nope. In a perfectly flown turn, the ball of liquid would appear to indicate level flight. You might argue that it could replace the "ball" of a turn & bank indicator, but that's about it. It would also be tough to read in turbulence. See also this YouTube video showing Bob Hoover pouring iced tea while flying the plane through a roll, even while ...


53

Adding to the excellent Peter's answer who explained why for this particular model the wheels are placed far behind the centre of gravity (CG), I would like to clarify why this makes impossible to rotate at take off. A standard aircraft takes off right after the rotation, increasing the angle of attack and the lift. Before and while performing the rotation ...


32

Yes, it is normal. With very rare exceptions, gliders are not allowed to operate in IMC (instrument Meteorological Conditions) and must remain clear of clouds. There are also powered aircraft that do not have attitude indicators, mostly for the same reason (VFR, Visual Flight Rules only).


30

That attitude gyro reacts in the opposite manner to pitch movement (pitch down = horizon line rolls DOWN) compared to the "conventional" manner (pitch down, horizon line rolls UP). This is sufficiently confusing that on similar gyros of American manufacture, the words CLIMB and DIVE are printed on the "ball" inside the gyro case to remind the pilot what the ...


23

This is interesting! The only lead I was able to find (so far) is this discussion thread, with a comment: The colour becomes logical, if you see it moving. Climbing the plane which shows the sky in blue on the artificial horizon. Ground being brown/earth, if you see this, the nose of the plane is pointing downwards And the explanation for arranging ...


22

The components of attitude vector are called: yaw (or heading) is the angle of longitudinal (x) axis in horizontal plane, pitch is angle of longitudinal (x) axis from the horizontal and roll is angle of lateral (y) axis from the intersection of the yz (orthogonal to longitudinal axis) plane with horizontal. And their derivatives are usually yaw-rate, pitch-...


22

Your assumption is correct, attitude is orientation in space and it excludes translation. Object orientation in space can be defined using multiple systems. The one used in aviation uses three angles: heading or yaw (around the yaw axis) pitch (around the lateral axis) roll or bank (around the longitudinal axis). Source. Attitude is usually understood as ...


22

It's so easy to sit in our comfy lounge chairs and wonder how on Earth pilots get things wrong. The error didn't happen without context. It was dark. There was little to no external visual reference due to cloud. The pilots were manually flying in a busy phase of flight. And the captain was probably adversely influenced by a medication/opioid. Even ...


20

Mainly the options 2 and 1 from your list. What nobody mentioned so far, but is rather important here is that the angle of attack depends on speed1 and weight. While the "speed" does not vary much for most airliners, the difference between empty and fully loaded airliner is rather large. Now if the fuselage was tilted down, it would generate lift directed ...


19

Unfortunately, if there had been a jazz band in the cockpit singing "The plane is stalling" it wouldn't have helped. If Moses had been in there carrying a stone tablet newly-carved by God himself inscribed "Pitch down" with a host of angels to help announce it, that would have made no difference. The unrecoverable problems were in the pilots' brains and in ...


19

As pointed out by Juan's answer, they are not required for the kind of operations allowed for gliders, so they are left out for cost reasons. Furthermore, artificial horizons are relatively complex and expensive instruments, at least in contrast with most other instruments you see in a glider cockpit. Older models need to keep their gyroscopes running in ...


18

Pilots that fly in clouds knowingly will be under IFR (instrument flight rules) and will have contact with traffic control to keep away from other planes. If you end up in a cloud by accident the standard procedure is to turn around 180° keeping the same height and continue until out of the cloud (or transfer to IFR). A pilot in a cloud doesn't rely on what ...


16

@mike rodent I've read your comments on this post and they seem rather strong in tone to me. I'm joining the discussion here to hopefully explain to you why your ideas are not going to work as you intended in real life. The reason for the gap between your proposed solution and other's comment on "it will not work" is that you have a flawed understanding of ...


15

I am intimately familiar with that incident. The airplane only had FDR recording the left PFD so they don't really know what was showing on the right one based on FDR. The only pitch angle protection is the shaker/pusher. They didn't get that slow. The AP runs off the Flight Director it's selected to. This is normally the FD of the pilot flying.The ...


13

A gyroscopic AI has an erection mechanism, which continuously corrects the AI to be upright based on the local level, or downward acceleration vector. The correction rate is generally 3-5 degrees per minute. The way that the AI corrects itself is a system of pendulous vanes. When the gyro is not upright relative to the local level, centrifugal force pushes ...


13

In most countries, for contest flying in gliders, the rules prohibit any kind of attitude indicator or turn rate indicator, to ensure that pilots do not illegally enter clouds and gain an unfair advantage. However, some appropriately-rated pilots do legally fly appropriately-equipped gliders in clouds. In many cases this is done in the context of "wave ...


12

Ultimately the answer to your question is number (1) from your options above - That's just how the aerodynamics happen to work out. To generate a certain amount of lift requires that the wing have a specific angle of attack at a given speed. As the wings are more-or-less permanently attached to the fuselage setting the angle of attack requires us to pitch ...


12

Yes, on airships. The Zeppelin NT can rotate its two forward and one rear propellers to create lift instead of thrust, a capability of particular value when the airship descends in an atmosphere with a strong temperature gradient. From this page about the Zeppelin NT: The two forward propellors swivel to 120° and the aft one to 90°, and a fixed aft ...


12

Generally, a slight nose-up attitude gives the best performance. This allows the fuselage to create some lift without producing too much drag, thus filling the drop in the spanwise lift distribution created by the interruption of the wing by the fuselage. However, in passenger aircraft this will make the job of attendants much harder because their trolleys ...


12

A flag is not really effective because a big jets stalling speed is well over 100+ knots. The flag will be blowing fully even in the stall. I'm not familiar with the ship suggestion but it sounds like you're desribing a gyroscope - aka an attitude indicator, which is already right in front of the pilots. But furthermore, it doesn't solve the problem. AF447 ...


11

Roll, pitch and yaw are rotations about the principle body axis of the aircraft. Roll angle, pitch angle and yaw angle together describe the attitude of an aircraft. The principle body axes are: X-axis is the longitudinal axis pointing out the nose of the aircraft. Rotation about the x-axis is called roll. Roll rate is denoted $p$, roll angle is denoted $\...


11

A pilot has no clearer vision through a cloud than you looking out the window at the same time. However, the flight can proceed in safety with a combination of instruments and the facilities available to an air traffic controller. In order for a pilot to enter a cloud, s/he must be flying under Instrument Flight Rules, which among other things means that an ...


11

As the elevators rotate to get a negative pitch angle to the horizontal (moving the tip of the elevator upwards), a pressure difference is created causing it to produce a downwards force, and as a result the aircraft pivots around the landing gear, rotating upwards. As it does so, the wing starts to generate more lift, as can be seen on the graph below. The ...


11

Wouldn't these two measures have had a good chance of providing the pilots of AF 447 with a true and totally irrefutable mental picture of what was actually going on? No more so than the standard indicators of attitude and airspeed that we've had for as long as people have been climbing into flying machines. Attitude indicator (source: pilotfriend.com) ...


11

Is this use of "straight and level" correct? What is the definition of straight and level, if any, regarding heading, attitude, speed, altitude? In the airplane flying handbook the FAA defines straight and level flight as Straight-and-level flight is flight in which heading and altitude are constantly maintained. My understanding and the ...


10

The answer is indeed (a). For tailwheel aircraft, what typically happens is typically the following: With all 3 wheels on the ground, you start gaining speed by increasing thrust. Very soon (e.g. much sooner that the minimum take-off speed), you push the stick to lift the tailwheel off the ground and put the aircraft at more or less zero AoA. When you reach ...


10

I may have misunderstood the question but I think the answer may be... flaps. Wing flaps will increase the lifting ability of the wing and at a constant airspeed the nose will need to be lowered to maintain a particular altitude.


10

Just adding few more points to already existing answers. I agree with previous commenters - some understanding of pilot perception and context is needed. @Claudix, the image used in your original question can be misleading for 2 reasons: 1) Both instruments are tilted to the right side on your original image. This is, however, not how pilots would see the ...


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