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There are two coefficients which determine the forces needed to deflect a control surface (besides the physical parameters like area and dynamic pressure): Change in control surface hinge moment coefficient $c_r$ with angle of attack $\alpha$ : $c_{r\alpha}=\frac{\delta c_r}{\delta\alpha}$ Change in control surface hinge moment coefficient $c_r$ with ...


The ATR icing problem was 25 years ago. I'm sure you'll make it safely by this point.


It seems the dorsal fairing is already made of composite materials. See the images below. These components only receive aerodynamic loads and maybe unlikely yet possible foreing object impacts. (taken from this paper) (from google with "atr 72 tail fin fairing" keywords) From the below picture (from here) you can easily spot aluminium components ...


The loads on section of a dorsal fin are minor, just from the dynamic pressure of airflow that may be striking the panel from the side during yaw excursions in turbulence. It's a "lifting" surface, insofar as it's contributing to the restorative yaw moment being part of a stabilizing fin, but the loads aren't super high and it may even just be ...


Because the horn extends ahead of the hinge line, the slipstream tends to pull the rudder deeper into deflection. This reduces the amount of control force needed to work the rudder without servo-boosting it. This is called aerodynamic boost and can be used to boost the ailerons and the elevator as well.


If you're on a US commercial airline, then you have less chance of dying on a flight than you do doing anything else you can imagine, including sleeping in your bed at night. (A 75-year lifespan spends about 750,000 man-hours in bed, with one death in those hours. The deaths-per-flight-hour rate for US airlines is between 1/10th and 1/100th of that.) If the ...

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