43

In general, IFR flights through controlled airspace use airways (highways in the sky) to fly between waypoints. The particular flight you show looks like it arrived via the N774 airway to a waypoint MARLN: (skyvector.com) The traffic flow around busy airports like Kingsford Smith (YSSY) in Sydney is usually structured using Standard Instrument Departures (...


14

Most airports have approaches designed to be as straight-in as possible for the reasons you describe. Cases like this one in Sydney are in the minority (for major airports at least). This is the approach route in question: As to why YSSY specifically has such an inefficient approach? I'm not 100% certain but I can think of a few contributing factors. Sydney ...


9

I'm a bit late to the conversation, but I think I have a winner so far, at 9.61° for the KASE VOR/DME-C approach.


8

The arrows are referencing the nav cues, not the VORTAC radials, which define the MSA zones. It’s cut up that way to define the sectors relative to the reference point that you will be flying in e.g. for the second from left MSA symbol, if you’re flying southeast of the HQM VORTAC between a course heading of 230° TO and 350° TO the VORTAC, this is an ...


7

You don't need to do a full turn around the holding pattern, you can just cross the IAF and proceed inbound. This is from the AIM 5-4-9(a)(5): The holding pattern maneuver is completed when the aircraft is established on the inbound course after executing the appropriate entry. If cleared for the approach prior to returning to the holding fix, and the ...


6

RNP approaches require a minimum value of 0.30, be it LNAV only, LNAV/ VNAV or RNP AR. Most of the approaches around the globe are RNP approaches. So, they do not put in the value because it remains the same at 0.30. In RNP AR approaches they put in the value because these are approaches that require specially trained pilots and specially equipped aircraft. ...


6

CI = course to intercept CF = course to fix FI = fix to intercept CD = course to DME FD = fix to DME These are AIRINC 424 leg types. You can find more information on them here


6

The reasons GBAS and SBAS are the way they are goes back to decisions made in the early 1990's when the concepts were first proposed. When the push started for satnav approaches it was obvious that augmentation was necessary to meet the accuracy and integrity needed for approach procedures. The FAA tasked RTCA to develop the standards and that was delegated ...


5

A Non Precision Approach (NPA) flown with Integrated Approach Navigation (IAN) is not more precise than the same approach flown with LNAV/VNAV. The advantage of IAN is that the instrumentation and procedures are very similar to ILS (Cat I), which is the most common approach type flown for most airline pilots. Having a common set of indications on the PFD and ...


5

I won't pretend that I understand the physics of this, but one possible explanation is in FAA Order 6750.16E - Siting Criteria for Instrument Landing Systems. Section 3 discusses terrain effects on the ILS signal, and it notes that approaches that are partially over water may have signal quality issues. One way to address that is using a lower glide angle, ...


4

https://www.flightliteracy.com/instrument-approach-procedure-charts-part-two/ Normally, approach features within the plan view are shown to scale; however, only the data within the reference circle is always drawn to scale.


4

After the crash of China airlines flight 140, Airbus released an Airworthiness directive, AD (SB A300-22-6021) which made it mandatory for carriers to bring in the corrective modifications to the aircraft auto flight system within 24 months after the release of the directive. The modification allowed the aircraft autopilot to disconnect if a certain amount ...


4

Which one is better for carrying out approaches? An ILS approach is more precise for two reasons: The ILS localizer is more sensitive than a VOR radial, therefore providing more accurate lateral guidance. The ILS has a glide slope providing vertical guidance. A VOR approach does not have any vertical guidance (although with a VOR/DME one can at least ...


4

There are published instrument approach procedures for all airports served by an instrument approach. These are commonly referred to as Approach Plates. (In paper form). Your local pilot shop should have them, or you can order online. Just look in the section for the airport you are going to and all the available approaches will be there. Browse to the ...


4

GPS approaches are designed for you to fall back to LNAV if a 'higher' precision option like LPV fails during the approach. Just like going from ILS to localizer only if the glideslope fails. The Instrument Procedure Handbook p. 4-26 says: Flying a WAAS LPV approach requires an aircraft with WAAS-LPV avionics. If for some reason the WAAS service becomes ...


3

Here is the final answer handed down directly from the Garmin technical support department. After a conversation with one of their aviation technicians, he told me that the error seems to be in their database. The same discrepancy (a track of 159 instead of 157) appeared whenever he reviewed the KRNT 16 RNAV Y approach from his end. He even rolled back the ...


3

The conditions for arming the ILS APPR mode are given in the FCOM: Arming Conditions The pilot arms the (ILS) APPR mode (LOC and G/S in blue on the FMA) by pushing the APPR pushbutton on the FCU, provided that: An ILS approach is selected, The aircraft is above 400 feet RA, The ILS and RA are available, Go-around or takeoff or final mode is not engaged, ...


3

It really depends on the aircraft. Some have plenty of rudder authority and sideslip very well, others are better at stall onset with still plenty of elevator and aileron authority. Now first to the term "mushing glide": This happens at very low speed when the airplane flies far at the backside of its envelope. Flow on the inner wing is already partly ...


3

I was taught the following rule of thumb for providing a final vector to final, in the USA, using the STARS radar system which (when using ADS-B inputs) has a one-second update time: Set the Predicted Track Line to 30 seconds. Vector the aircraft to a 90º base-to-final. When the PTL reaches the extended runway final, issue the Position-Turn-Altitude-...


3

If you take a look at the manual for the 430 you will see that you can only load one approach at a time. Turn the large right knob to highlight ‘Load?’ or ‘Activate?’ (approaches only) and press the ENT Key. (‘Load?’ adds the procedure to the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows the pilot to continue navigating the ...


3

For completeness, in the USA it is not always 30 degrees; in fact the maximum is 45 degrees, but only for helicopters. The rules vary based on how far from the approach gate the aircraft will intercept the final approach course. The approach gate is an imaginary point one mile outside of the final approach fix, but at least five miles from the runway ...


3

I'm no expert, but from what I gather the transponder has a direct connection to the altimeter pre-Kollsman window. Not sure how that's possible but it's something along those lines. Essentially the transponder reports your flight level to ATC no matter what— it always reports your altitude assuming an altimeter setting of 29.92. Then the radar system on the ...


3

To perform an ILS CAT I approach, at least the touchdown zone RVR sensor must be operational. For CAT II, you need the touchdown zone and midfield sensors, and for CAT III you need all three. As per your NOTAM, if only the stopend RVR sensor is out of service, it should be possible to perform CAT I and CAT II approaches (assuming those are available for that ...


2

Most recent European Law (so at least applicable in Europe): A "type A instrument approach operation” means an instrument approach operation with a minimum descent height or decision height at or above 75 m (250 ft); A "type B instrument approach operation” means an instrument approach operation with a decision height below 75 m (250 ft). Type B ...


2

This usually depends on the airline SOPs. The safest thing to do when cleared for the approach is to set the MCP altitude window to the lowest altitude restriction because that way you won't forget to lower it again. As long as the aircraft is descending in VNAV PTH mode, it will follow all altitude crossing restrictions. When cleared for final approach, one ...


2

Although I can’t find regulations regarding stabilized approaches in the FAR/AIM, the unofficial but generally accepted definition of a stabilized approach would be “Only small changes in heading/pitch. How small?” Small changes in heading and pitch would mean changes only necessary to maintain a ground track on the lateral guidance and a consistent ...


2

Based on the 7110.65 2–1–17h, "degrees" is never used. Based on Note 9 under 4–8–1a, the text in paranthesis is omitted. So, ATC would say: Cleared Copter RNAV zero two seven Approach or Cleared Copter RNAV heading zero two seven Approach If you were requesting it, you'd say "Requesting Copter RNAV zero two seven approach." However, ...


2

Lowering flaps and gear will add significant drag, which causes the plane to decelerate. Your body feels that, but without visual reference to the ground, your brain has no way to know what speed it was traveling before or after that deceleration. This is an example of “spatial disorientation”, where the brain gets confusing inputs and comes to the wrong ...


1

All appraoches require RNP APCH capability, i.e. a precision of 0.3 on the final segment (see Part SPA.PBN, click on GM1 and check Table 1 on the second page). They also have a RNP AR APCH option (which requires additional equipment and a specific authorisation), with a 0.15 precision requirement. I suspect that indicating 0.30 on the "standard" Z ...


1

A good place to start getting the info you seek is The Airport/Facilities Directory and NOTAMS give you the actual availability on a day-to-day basis. Some RWYs have a Localiser BackCourse approach - LOC BC RWXX; If RW 9 has an ILS, the same Localizer has a Back Course (BC), that lies on RW 27 Approach centerline. Every Localizer has a back course. Obviously ...


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