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43

In general, IFR flights through controlled airspace use airways (highways in the sky) to fly between waypoints. The particular flight you show looks like it arrived via the N774 airway to a waypoint MARLN: (skyvector.com) The traffic flow around busy airports like Kingsford Smith (YSSY) in Sydney is usually structured using Standard Instrument Departures (...


14

Most airports have approaches designed to be as straight-in as possible for the reasons you describe. Cases like this one in Sydney are in the minority (for major airports at least). This is the approach route in question: As to why YSSY specifically has such an inefficient approach? I'm not 100% certain but I can think of a few contributing factors. Sydney ...


13

"Final" or "Final vector" is the position in charge of, well, final approach. It is a radar control position worked in the TRACON. As aircraft are transferred from the ARTCC to the Tracon, the Center (or Enroute) controller will tell them to contact the "Approach" controller. Everyone in the TRACON uses the callsign "...


9

That's not a hold instruction, rather the missed approach procedure. TRK RCL to D11.0. SAT VOR.. TURN RT DCT KEA VOR.. HOLD SE OF KEA. ON R-157. RT TURNS.. Track runway centerline to distance 11 NM from SAT VOR. Turn right direct KEA. Hold southeast of KEA on radial 157 (i.e. inbound track 337). Right turns. Which matches the published approach except for ...


7

As ymb1 commented, RAIM was introduced in TSO-C129 receivers. These were the first GPS receivers certified and they were only approved for supplemental navigation (You were required to also have an approved nav system such as VOR as primary.) RAIM algorithms are still present in the more modern SBAS capable receivers but are pretty much moot as long as the ...


7

It sounds as if the design process has already gone through manufacture of the aeroplane and through flight testing, which is a very late stage to re-design the complete main wing geometry and structure. There are some items open to interpretation in your question, let's consider two cases: 1. Stick fixed static stability Assuming that the design in ...


7

You don't need to do a full turn around the holding pattern, you can just cross the IAF and proceed inbound. This is from the AIM 5-4-9(a)(5): The holding pattern maneuver is completed when the aircraft is established on the inbound course after executing the appropriate entry. If cleared for the approach prior to returning to the holding fix, and the ...


6

The reasons GBAS and SBAS are the way they are goes back to decisions made in the early 1990's when the concepts were first proposed. When the push started for satnav approaches it was obvious that augmentation was necessary to meet the accuracy and integrity needed for approach procedures. The FAA tasked RTCA to develop the standards and that was delegated ...


5

I won't pretend that I understand the physics of this, but one possible explanation is in FAA Order 6750.16E - Siting Criteria for Instrument Landing Systems. Section 3 discusses terrain effects on the ILS signal, and it notes that approaches that are partially over water may have signal quality issues. One way to address that is using a lower glide angle, ...


5

After the crash of China airlines flight 140, Airbus released an Airworthiness directive, AD (SB A300-22-6021) which made it mandatory for carriers to bring in the corrective modifications to the aircraft auto flight system within 24 months after the release of the directive. The modification allowed the aircraft autopilot to disconnect if a certain amount ...


4

The approach plate specifies that "DME" is required for this approach (see the upper left of the approach plate). The FAA Instrument Flying Handbook (page 9-27) specifies that the GPS database must be "current" if the GPS is to be substituted for DME. GPS Substitution for ADF or DME Using GPS as a substitute for ADF or DME is subject to ...


4

If I understand the question correctly, the airplane will exhibit a negative stick force gradient with speed. In other words, when speed goes up the stick will move in "pull" direction when left to itself when for a stable airplane it should move in "push" direction. From the little your question conveys I come to those conclusions: ...


4

In addition to the above answers, the term final controller can also refer to the controller issuing instruction for a ground controlled approach, such as a PAR or ASR approach. Aircraft will get handed off to this controller before commencing the approach, and will receive lateral and/or vertical guidance depending on the equipment available for that runway....


4

https://www.flightliteracy.com/instrument-approach-procedure-charts-part-two/ Normally, approach features within the plan view are shown to scale; however, only the data within the reference circle is always drawn to scale.


3

To perform an ILS CAT I approach, at least the touchdown zone RVR sensor must be operational. For CAT II, you need the touchdown zone and midfield sensors, and for CAT III you need all three. As per your NOTAM, if only the stopend RVR sensor is out of service, it should be possible to perform CAT I and CAT II approaches (assuming those are available for that ...


3

I was taught the following rule of thumb for providing a final vector to final, in the USA, using the STARS radar system which (when using ADS-B inputs) has a one-second update time: Set the Predicted Track Line to 30 seconds. Vector the aircraft to a 90º base-to-final. When the PTL reaches the extended runway final, issue the Position-Turn-Altitude-...


3

For completeness, in the USA it is not always 30 degrees; in fact the maximum is 45 degrees, but only for helicopters. The rules vary based on how far from the approach gate the aircraft will intercept the final approach course. The approach gate is an imaginary point one mile outside of the final approach fix, but at least five miles from the runway ...


3

I'm no expert, but from what I gather the transponder has a direct connection to the altimeter pre-Kollsman window. Not sure how that's possible but it's something along those lines. Essentially the transponder reports your flight level to ATC no matter what— it always reports your altitude assuming an altimeter setting of 29.92. Then the radar system on the ...


3

There's probably no perfect answer to your question because there are lots of variables. But, because ATC told you to stay at 2500 ft, I would remain at that altitude and well outside the airport area. When I'm able to contact the tower I would ask for further instructions. By the way, if the airport/runway uses left traffic, ATC can omit the traffic pattern ...


3

The "No pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless" is a section of it's own, named (a), followed by conditions (1) and (2). Section (a) is not linked to section (e) in the manner you suggest. Section (e) deals with a ... pilot in command of a turbine-powered airplane who has not served at least 100 hours as pilot in ...


3

The simplest answer is that non-precision approaches (e.g. LOC or VOR) nearly always have higher minima than precision approaches (e.g. ILS). Precision approaches provide strict vertical guidance: the pilot flies a constant descent angle down a precise glide slope/path, and if they don’t see the runway by the time they reach the DA, they immediately climb ...


2

A Final (radar) controller in a TRACON provides instructions (e.g., radar vectors, speed adjustments, etc.) and an instrument approach clearance (if required) necessary to sequence, provide separation with other aircraft, and align the aircraft with the landing runway. Once this is done the pilot will be instructed to contact the Control Tower. Typically ...


2

The approach speeds for different flap settings are shown in the Cessna 152 POH. See the 1980 Cessna 152 POH. Although the POH does not break down the different flap settings referenced in your question (some interpolation is necessary) it does identify the appropriate speeds for flaps up, normal approach (flaps 30) and short field approach (also flaps 30). ...


2

Most recent European Law (so at least applicable in Europe): A "type A instrument approach operation” means an instrument approach operation with a minimum descent height or decision height at or above 75 m (250 ft); A "type B instrument approach operation” means an instrument approach operation with a decision height below 75 m (250 ft). Type B ...


2

Based on the 7110.65 2–1–17h, "degrees" is never used. Based on Note 9 under 4–8–1a, the text in paranthesis is omitted. So, ATC would say: Cleared Copter RNAV zero two seven Approach or Cleared Copter RNAV heading zero two seven Approach If you were requesting it, you'd say "Requesting Copter RNAV zero two seven approach." However, ...


2

Since most fatal accidents are during approach, it is important to maintain 100% compliance with the procedure and have a clear understanding of what your FMS will do with different modes. There is an important Garmin / FMS distinction between: Selecting "Activate Approach" mode when navigating to a fix leading to an approach sequence, and; ...


2

Lowering flaps and gear will add significant drag, which causes the plane to decelerate. Your body feels that, but without visual reference to the ground, your brain has no way to know what speed it was traveling before or after that deceleration. This is an example of “spatial disorientation”, where the brain gets confusing inputs and comes to the wrong ...


1

If the 737 is like most other FMS installations you will find the approach will activate at the capture fix. It is typically the waypoint just before the FAF. If you were flying into KMEM RNAV RWY 36C the capture fix would be NESBT and the FAF would be GINIE. In the FMS that I use, the capture fix is typically loaded twice into the flightplan. Once from ...


1

The GBAS method allows for more dynamic implementations than the database method. Databases are updated only on the AIRAC cycle date, and getting a change through requires months of preparation beforehand. The GBAS message can theoretically be changed overnight. For example, if an airport needs to urgently displace a runway threshold (e.g. because of ...


1

A good place to start getting the info you seek is The Airport/Facilities Directory and NOTAMS give you the actual availability on a day-to-day basis. Some RWYs have a Localiser BackCourse approach - LOC BC RWXX; If RW 9 has an ILS, the same Localizer has a Back Course (BC), that lies on RW 27 Approach centerline. Every Localizer has a back course. Obviously ...


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