64

Gradual relocation essentially mean having to staff and equip nearly two full airports during the transition period. It is also annoying for the travelers that want to transfer planes and need to relocate to the other airport. They would then need to get transported to or from the new location and through security again unless a small short hop flight is ...


57

As an aircraft mechanic at a major airline, I think I can answer this pretty well. It wouldn’t be hard at all. All I have to do is wait for an aircraft move. This could be to bring a plane into the hangar or just to move it from one gate to another. I could simply volunteer to taxi the aircraft, which wouldn’t be unusual at all. At my airport, we have to ...


47

It allows them to do a run-up test of the engines without blowing debris at other parked aircraft, people, or things on the ground. [Credit to Ralph J] The walls have a structure that allows the noise of engine run-ups to be absorbed as well. Engine run-ups, especially multi-engine run ups, can be very loud. You can read more about IAC-Acoustics ground ...


41

Moving airline by airline doesn't help that much: You still have the same chaos, just on a per-airline basis. The airports you mention are dominated by large carriers that have turned them into hubs (Turkish Airlines and Lufthansa). Even if you move all the other airlines one by one, you still have much of the pain of the big move when you move the largest ...


33

Gradually moving between airports is a living nightmare for connecting travelers. Exactly that was done at Montreal Mirabel airport, a fabulous, spacious new replacement airport for Montreal Dorval (Trudeau). Montreal used to be Canada's main international hub. International flights were banned from the old airport, as incentive for airlines to move all ...


24

Where I work, we have to stay in the tower for 15 minutes after the last departure in case they need to return. To my knowledge, there are no international regulations about this, so the rules may well be different from place to place.


23

Not just departures. Assume an emergency takes place en route, and that airport with the closed runway is the only one available within a big area. What now? There are two things to distinguish: Operating hours Temporary surface (runway) closure If the airport is already 24/7, the tower will remain staffed. If not, once the airport closes on schedule, ...


22

Why bus The typical reason you use a bus to your low-cost carrier (LCC) or regional jet is the cheaper 'remote stands'. But this doesn't mean the stand is necessarily closer to the runway where the planes take off and land. See: Who decides whether an airline docks at a jetbridge or parks at a remote stand? Can't be too close A big area around the runway ...


14

This answer varies wildly depending on the size and type of aircraft involved, but in general: How is the runway cleared? They remove the aircraft, then sweep the runway for smaller debris and then inspect the tarmac to make sure the aircraft didn't gouge into it, and tear up chunks. Is the plane towed away (scraping along the ground)? No. The aircraft ...


13

You can probably guess - none. Like most industries, aviation relies on an assumption of good faith from the employees. The incessant string of terrorist attacks throughout this century changed some things, but the focus is squarely on protecting commercial flights with passengers aboard. Traditionally, the protection against joyrides was that a civilian ...


12

did Kai Tak have a straight-in approach to runway 13 for use by steep-approach-certified aircraft? During the 1990s I regularly flew the Hong Kong IGS approach in 747s. At that time, to the best of my knowledge, there was no straight-in approach to runway 13. only the best of the best pilots were allowed to shoot the bent approach to runway 13, and only ...


12

It looks like the reason for the Rwy 6 departure was noise abatement. The climb gradient from 6 is not as steep as for 24. The Jeppesen charts state the requirements: And it states that if you are unable to comply with the steeper noise abatement climb gradient for rwy 24 (583 ft climb per nautical mile), you should request 6 (300 ft climb per nautical mile)...


8

I know that KAVX has quite a hump in the middle of the runway which does not allow for departing aircraft to see all the way down the runway, and I'd imagine that the procedures are the same as they would be for Elk City Airport. The Facilities Directory/Chart Supplement for KAVX says: PILOTS CANNOT SEE ACFT ON OPPOSITE ENDS OF RWY DUE TO GRADIENT, MUST ...


7

ICAO Annex 10 Volume 1 has the answer: 3.1.2.7 At those locations where two separate ILS facilities serve opposite ends of a single runway, an interlock shall ensure that only the localizer serving the approach direction in use shall radiate, except where the localizer in operational use is Facility Performance Category I — ILS and no operationally ...


6

I don't have an authoritative source for what the various regulatory agencies in the various regions use for publishing their transition altitudes, but your assumption is pretty close: airspace is planned so that no airport is "that close" to the transition level. Some TAs are defined across large swaths, such as the US, Canadian, Australian TAs. Some TAs ...


6

I've recently experienced the same thing on Schiphol, but to me the things that you mention seem pretty obvious: it's all down to economics. There is only so much parking space around the airport terminals. Aircraft for regional routes are smaller (50-120 passengers), so using a few buses to shuttle the passengers around is only a small undertaking. This ...


5

This depends on where you are in the country and more specifically who controls the airport. A lot of airports in the US are owned by cities (or local governments) in some capacity. As such changing the landing fees often requires a legislative change which is not always easy. For example here is the legislation that covers the landing fees at both major ...


4

The unspoken truth (no references, sorry) for this also applies to many airports around the world (not just Gran Canaria). The follow-me service is not free, and it's one of the ways airport operators make money and create jobs for the community. The Spanish Aeronautical Information Publication (.pdf) for GCLP does not state a reason, merely confirms what ...


4

They're being used in a different way than normal in that case. That's just a taxiway, not an engine run-up pad, so they aren't there to deflect max thrust jet blast. They've been arrayed "backwards" to kind of trap debris that gets blown toward the building as aircraft taxi by. That's my guess anyway.


4

After the Germanwings 9525 crash most airlines introduced (if not already in place) procedures that when the airplane is in flight there have to be always 2 persons in the cockpit. I could imagine that either procedures like this are extended to all ground operations (which wouldn't have stopped this guy, it would've been just another violation of rules) or ...


4

I could not find FAA requirements; however, there is an industry standard: SAE J348 (the details are behind a paywall). A 1993 flightsafety.org publication emphasizes that chock placement and design are essential, for example: The chock’s height is very important and it depends on the size of wheel to be restrained. For heavy transport aircraft, a six-...


4

My experience is when KUL moved from Subang (now SZB) to the new KL Intl Airport (KLIA). The moving date was declared way in advance, I seem to remember the date was locked more than 6 months before, and a lot of airlines rescheduled their ops especially the nightstopping aircraft. Obviously Malaysia Airlines had to ferry a bunch of planes over but its a ...


4

ICAO Doc 4444 states the following: 7.15.4.1 Runway lighting shall not be operated if that runway is not in use for landing, take-off or taxiing purposes, unless required for runway inspections or maintenance. 7.15.4.2 If runway lighting is not operated continuously, lighting following a take-off shall be provided as specified below: a) at aerodromes ...


3

No, there is no limit. Aircraft stay as long in holding patterns as they have fuel on board.


3

The simple answer seems to be for wake turbulence. This FAA document, ORDER JO 7110.308C, seems to say it is for wake turbulence reasons in para. 9: The geometry of the approach, as well as the lateral separation between the two approaches and prevailing local meteorological conditions, provide the wake turbulence avoidance necessary for reduced ...


2

According to Toronto Pearson's official website, the airport operates in four main configurations, this is what they look like: Also judging by the satellite imagery, CYYZ is LAHSO enabled, that is the intersecting runways (05 and 33L, for example) can be used simultaneously. (It resulted in a near-miss back in 2002.)


2

Advance Surface Movement Guidance & Control Systems (ASMGCS) in different levels are being used for this purpose. Many airport in the world uses the concept of Follow Green, where the aircraft is supposed to follow the green taxiway centre line lights to reach the parking stand after vacating runway and vice versa. Surface Movement Radars combined with ...


2

(YouTube) Much closer than 1 km at SFO. 1 km (~3,300') is not the minimum (see this illustration from the FAA AIM). The centerline spacing for parallel approaches can go as low as 750' (~230 m), a prime example is San Francisco: (Google Earth) Centerline spacing at SFO. But getting very close like at SFO requires special training, procedures, charts, ...


2

Fee setting is complicated. First, it should be noted the $4.50 per flight segment PFC charge is not intended to provide for terminal amenity improvements. As described by the FAA, the stated purpose of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program is: Airports use these fees to fund FAA-approved projects that enhance safety, security, or capacity; reduce ...


2

KSFO has sidestep minima for ILS/LOC 28R to 28L but not from ILS/LOC 28L to 28R. It also has a sidestep from ILS/LOC 19L to 19R but no ILS at all for 19R itself. The latter is probably the more normal case for sidesteps: giving a second runway (probably one normally only used for departures) lower minima than circling without needing to install and ...


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