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The main example in the question body is to confine the wing from the main taxiway, which runs across the bottom of the image. It may not seem like it, but a 50 m (164 ft) wide plane like those tankers parked at a 45-degree angle saves ~15 m (approx. one-third of its wingspan). The reference used by the USAF is AFMAN 32-1084 (PDF), from which:


Another problem is now your balanced field length takeoff plus landing performance has to be based on "wet runway" parameters which adds significant penalty, more than negating any benefit you got from evaporative cooling. Now if you were in the desert you might get some kind of benefit with a fogging system that blew atomized water fog over the runway ...


There are a few problems with this idea: The water evaporating would increase the humidity, likely canceling any cooling benefit. The effect would be localized in a very small region just above the pavement. The effect would be temporary as any breeze would quickly blow the cooled air away.


From USA AIP (emphasis added): The U.S. does not require or provide criteria for clearways in its design standards. It does encourage ownership and clearing of the land underlying the innermost portion of the approach out to where the approach surface is 10.5 meters above the level of the take-off surface. You may also want to check AC 150/5300-13A - ...

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