73 votes
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Can the Airbus A380 safely fly with two engines out on the same wing?

Proving that a multi-engine aircraft is flyable with one or more engines inoperative is part of the certification programme. The Airbus A380 is certified under FAR (Federal Aviation Regulations, USA) ...
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  • 74.8k
47 votes
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What is the difference between "Type Certificate" and "Certificate of Airworthiness" for an aircraft?

A Type Certificate is a certificate that the FAA gives the manufacturer of an aircraft, certifying the design of the aircraft. So for instance, Cessna Aircraft Company of Wichita, KS holds a Type ...
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  • 1,764
35 votes
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FAA Aircraft Registration Form AC 8050-3 doesn't exist

That's because 8050-1 is the Aircraft Registration Application, and 8050-3 is the Certificate of Aircraft Registration. You submit 8050-1, and the FAA sends you 8050-3.
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  • 70.2k
32 votes
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What are the reasons for an installed engine to produce less thrust than an uninstalled engine?

No, these losses are well known and are called installation losses. Their reasons are: Intake losses. In a ground test the engine will be fitted with a screen to avoid foreign object damage, but ...
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32 votes

Why are wings load tested upside down?

A wing can be tested in any orientation as long as the load is applied correctly. The classic wing test photo is the 787 in a fixture showing its extremely flexible wings. I thought it might be fun ...
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  • 16.5k
31 votes
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What is ETOPS and how does it work?

ETOPS stands for Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards, a rule which permits twin engine aircrafts to fly routes which, at some point, is more than 60 minutes flying time away ...
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  • 39.2k
27 votes

Why are wings load tested upside down?

@PilotHead is correct, but to elaborate a bit on why traditionally weight was put on the bottom is largely because its just easier. If you are Boeing you can afford to build a rig large enough to hold ...
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  • 96k
22 votes

What is the maximal acceptable delay between pilot's input and flight control surface actuation?

Excessive phase lag is a direct contributor to Type I Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO). Phase lag comes from: Rigid body dynamics of the aircraft (e.g. delay between elevator surface and pitch rate ...
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  • 10.8k
22 votes
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Why will the 777X be tested for crosswind handling with wingtips raised?

If you read the details in the Federal Register, you can see that this refers to crosswind handling on the ground, not in the air: The folding wingtips and their operating mechanism must be designed ...
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  • 70.2k
22 votes

What makes a jet single pilot certified?

According to this blog: Up until 1977, the FAA required all jets to be operated by two pilots. In ‘77, Cessna was given approval on a single-pilot variant of the Citation I, the Citation I-SP. The ...
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  • 10.8k
21 votes
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What's required for a plane certified to fly to Antarctica?

I'm not aware of any specific 'certification' for aircraft operating to/from Antarctica. The air operations to/from Antarctica varies greatly depending on the location of the airstrip and season. ...
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  • 98.5k
18 votes
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Would the Gee Bee be allowed to fly today, with so little forward visibility?

The reasons such aircraft (including Spirit of St.Louis as pointed out by @ymb) were allowed to fly are explained in another answer. Quoting from it: You don't need a panoramic view to land, ... ...
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  • 98.5k
15 votes
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What are the differences between Normal and Utiltiy Categories

From a regulatory standpoint the governing regulation is FAR 23 (airworthiness standards for what we'd generally call "small" airplanes - Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter category). FAR 23.3 ...
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  • 67.2k
15 votes

What is the longest range single-pilot certified (FAA and/or EASA) business jet?

There aren't any civilian, current-production jets that come close to the range of the SJ30 for single pilot operations based on my research, although one or two turboprops have comparable ranges. I ...
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  • 6,325
14 votes

How are evolution and variants of aircraft considered by certification authorities?

Variants are seen as a modification of an existing airplane design, and only the changed parts need to be certified. The real advantage is that the set of rules the certification has to comply with ...
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13 votes
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How are evolution and variants of aircraft considered by certification authorities?

I'm not really clear on the difference between type, model and series A type is the basic airplane design, like the A320 type, which includes the A318, A319, A320, and A321. A series is the basic ...
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  • 69.7k
13 votes
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What is the purpose of flutter testing?

Flutter is a phenomenon that can occur when a structure is subjected to aerodynamic forces. It occurs not only in aircraft but also for example in buildings, power lines, road signs and bridges. ...
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  • 74.8k
12 votes
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What is the longest range single-pilot certified (FAA and/or EASA) business jet?

There are only a hand full of single pilot jets in production currently and the SJ30x seems to have the longest range by far. The other competitors in the space, the Cessna Citation Mustang, The Honda ...
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  • 96k
12 votes

Would the Gee Bee be allowed to fly today, with so little forward visibility?

This YouTube video shows the view from an RC model of the plane.
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  • 221
12 votes

People say that modern airliners are more resilient to turbulence, but I see that a 707 and a 787 still have the same G-rating. Why is this?

Note that the 2.5 g limit is for load due to manoeuvring, not only for turbulence. The certification specification for large aircraft on the subject of turbulence and gusts has changed several times ...
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  • 74.8k
11 votes
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What are the regulatory categories of aircraft defined by the FAA?

The FAA defines several different types of aircraft, which have different applicable regulations. For fixed-wing aircraft, airworthiness for normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter categories is ...
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  • 69.7k
11 votes
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Why is FAA Aircraft Certification Service department named as AIR?

Because it's not an acronym. It's an administrative designation code for the office. While many are acronyms, others are not. The key is to make sure they are unique across the agency. They are in ...
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  • 17.6k
10 votes

What happens when an airplane gets struck by lightning?

Airplanes are designed to withstand lightning strikes, since they are expected to experience this in service. The goal is to conduct the current through the airplane while minimizing any damage this ...
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  • 69.7k
10 votes
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Are all US airline aircraft certified into known ice?

Title 14 CFR part 121.321 regulates scheduled airline operations in icing conditions. It requires airframe ice protection systems in order to operate in "conditions conductive to airframe icing&...
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  • 34.8k
9 votes

How is an on ground lightning strike test conducted?

You create your own lightning. You can do that with an impulse generator. Here's what a smaller one looks like: I don't know if that's what is used for the certificates but it certainly one way to ...
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9 votes

Are there any LSA aircraft that can be flown IFR in IMC?

Sorry to reanimate this rather old question, but I'm surprised none of the previous answers mentioned the Evector SportStar MAX, which has a model that is IFR equipped and which was available several ...
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9 votes

What is ETOPS and how does it work?

I see no mention of 14CFR 121.161 so here it is. § 121.161 Airplane limitations: Type of route. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, unless approved by the Administrator ...
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  • 2,628
9 votes

What would prohibit a T-38 Talon from being certified in the Acrobatic category?

That an aircraft is eligible for a category is not a basis to say that the aircraft should be certified in that category. In other words, though there is nothing prohibiting T-38 being certified in ...
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  • 98.5k
9 votes

What is the maximal acceptable delay between pilot's input and flight control surface actuation?

This is a classic problem in control system theory. The condition to be avoided at all costs is the case where the pilot's control actions get out of phase with the movements of the plane, so the ...
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