45

It's technical, not political The F-35 was an attempt to do exactly what you propose, lowering costs by planned sharing of 80% of parts across variants, but it turns out that the USN's F-35C costs over twice as much as the USAF's F-35A, and only shares 20-25% of it's parts. The project has been a disaster practically since day one, and the services are ...


25

Aircraft carriers use a TACAN, which stands for Tactical Aid to Navigation. (The Navy is really good at making acronyms that don't follow normal conventions for abbreviation) Functionally the TACAN is like a VOR with DME, providing bearing to and from the ship, as well as range. The system is not susceptible to rocking motion, and least not perceptibly. (...


20

Source: YouTube The bar is placed between a tong-like (two hooks) device on the aircraft, and when released, the body of the holdback bar envelops the hooks (note the disappearing red paint on the tips of the hooks) forming a collet. On the inside, as the plane pulls on the bar (1), the walls (2) compress a chamber filled with hydraulic fluid (3). The ...


17

The YF-17 is the answer to your question. It is the predecessor to the F/A-18, and was designed as a land-based fighter. The YF-17 is much lighter than the F/A-18, because it does not need to carry equipment for carrier landings. Adding this equipment makes the aircraft heavier, compromising performance. You then need to compensate for the added weight, but ...


13

The hook is for emergency use at airports that have Runway Arrestor Systems. Lots of non-naval fighters have arrestor hooks for that purpose. Now, there is nothing stopping someone from landing an F-16 or any other fighter on a carrier deck and using its arrestor system, which works the same way. The main issues are the proficiency required to do it and ...


12

A lot. About 3-4 m/s (600-800 fpm). This is the speed at which 'normal' landing gear begin to break. For carrier landings, there is no flare, so the touchdown speed equals to the sink rate on the final approach. The procedure in the linked question mentions 700 fpm. We can arrive at a similar figure if we consider the standard carrier glideslope 3.5° (pdf) ...


11

"Level" isn't a noun here--it's not that the break is a level. Level is an adjective describing the kind of a turn. A break is a turn; that turn is a level turn (neither descending nor ascending), and a 180 degree turn, and it is made at 800 feet.


11

The needs to operate on a carrier are different than the needs for a land based aircraft. They are subtle, but significant. As others have pointed out, the F-35 attempted to address these issues and wound up way over budget. (It was made even more complicated by the addition of a STOVL version for the Marines, the F-35B). CATOBAR aircraft differ from ...


9

You are correct. US carriers did indeed have a homing beacon that enabled aircraft to find them. The carrier transmitting units were called YE or YG, and the receiving units in the planes were designated ZB, and called "Zeebies". The transmitters consisted of rotating "superfrequency" beacons that broadcast different morse letters in different directions ...


9

From Wikipedia (emphasize mine): At one time, in an effort to extend the U-2's operating range and to eliminate the need for foreign government approval for U-2 operations from USAF bases in foreign countries, it was suggested that the U-2 be operated from aircraft carriers. Three aircraft were converted for carrier operations by the installation of ...


9

Correct, at the weights and speeds of most carrier based jets they would need several lengths of an aircraft carrier to get airborne. Catapults became required as the airwings transferred to jets in the 1950s and 1960s. Aircraft are stored in the hangar below decks, and on the sides. Anywhere there is free space. Even during simultaneous launch and ...


9

Because when selecting aircraft the requirements were for close air-support and to be able to operate from amphibious assault ships like the USS Tarawa and the USS Nassua. These ships have very small decks that aren't geared towards launching larger aircraft like the F-18.


8

The short answer is that it is because the carrier is moving toward the point that the FPM is indicating; where the ship and aircraft will converge at the moment of landing. In reviewing my answer to the other question linked in the comments, it struck me that some clarification might be needed to distinguish between landing visually, or by reference to ...


8

Yes the F-16 would be able to land on a carrier however it would most likely break/damage the landing gear and other components because it's not built for it. I am only assuming this, but I believe the net as shown in the picture could catch several non-naval aircraft including a F-16.


6

The "break" is where the aircraft enters the landing pattern. The aircraft carrier tries to time entries into the break such that aircraft are landing in 15-20 second intervals. Until you "break" you are in a holding pattern around the aircraft carrier. Entering the "break" is getting into the pattern to land. When they say "the break is level" it means the ...


6

No, the F-16 cannot "carrier land", even with the tail hook. The Air Force jets (aside from any that are shared with the Navy) have tail hooks only for emergency purposes during landing, or securing the aircraft during engine run-up testing. The tail hooks are not designed to arrest an aircraft like it would for a carrier landing, the land-based arresting ...


4

Another reason that carrier aircraft tend to be quite different from land based aircraft is the environment in which they operate: lots of salt. Consequently, carrier aircraft contain a much greater degree of corrosion resistant components, raising the price and in some cases the weight. Several naval aircraft have been adopted by land air forces. The USAF ...


4

An unloaded 737, flown by a top-tier pilot can stop incredibly fast, generally in a shorter distance than a Cessna-172 flown by a student (typically around 900 ft: I've seen planes at Boeing Field, land 32L and stop well before A9). Because the brakes are meant to stop a fully loaded plane on a wet runway, they are extremely powerful when the plane is ...


4

Modern aircraft that are not VTOL or STOVL cannot achieve combat effectiveness on a straight deck, without a catapult or a ski jump ramp. An unassisted takeoff from a straight carrier's deck is within the capabilities of some modern naval fighters. But it would severely limit the useful load (fuel and ordnance) that can be carried, and may be impossible ...


3

Something not yet mentioned is that the vertical speed typical of carrier operations is way higher than that for typical F-16 (or any non-naval type) landings. The landing gear of the F-16 is not designed to handle the resulting loads and would be liable to collapse, it's simply not strong enough. You can see this easily by comparing the landing gear of an ...


3

Standard practice is to turn abeam. This results in 10-15 seconds “in the groove” once you roll wings level on final. Because of the angled deck, the turn to final is more than 180 degrees. This does vary based on wind. Once, when both the natural winds were high and the ship was in a hurry to get somewhere (luckily into the wind) we saw 50 kts wind over ...


3

According to the F/A-18's manual, the pilot starts the 180° from downwind when abeam the landing signal officer's platform: With a 30-knot wind over the deck begin the 180° turn to the final approach when approximately abeam the LSO platform. Here's the illustration (of course the ship is not fixed, it's moving): Click to view


3

Having a second set of 3-4 wires would need a longer deck. But if one set is damaged, so would this landing area, so we need 2 runways: Doubling the size of the flight deck would result in a massive ship, and scaling doesn't favor something getting too big. Consider the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, even if the deck were to be double the size allowing two ...


2

Fairey Swordfish, operated off Royal Navy carriers in WW2. Supermarine Walrus, a single engine pusher flying boat carried on cruisers. Similar vintage.


2

To add to the disadvantage of a drag chute. The now retired USCG HU-25 Guardian (military version of Dassault Falcon 20) had a drag chute attached to the tail cone for emergency landings or short runways. This was because the engines the coast guard used did not have reverse thrust capability. This drag chute was only effective to about 60 knots. It was ...


2

On the old carriers that had a center deck elevator planes would spin on the deck and get into position to taxi into hangar bay one! You wouldn't believe how loud a "screaming Demon" could be! I was on the Oriskany in 1963 when they were still doing but later that year I was on the Midway and they stopped doing it!


2

If you’re talking about multiple landing areas (LAs), the idea has been considered by the Navy; early concepts of the Ford-Class carriers were large catamaran type vessels featuring parallel LAs. But the designs were excessively complex and expensive and not likely to survive to maturation. Laying out additional arresting gear on the angled LA would ...


1

During wartime or any emergency; if the F-16 found itself over an ocean and needed to land, and there was a friendly carrier nearby. Could it be done? I'd say yes, using the barricade, one time in extremis. The pilot would have to fly a really flat pass to not knock off the landing gear, but a really good pilot highly motivated to not die flying a good ...


1

To answer the questions you asked: 1) It isn’t a question of whether a STOVL aircraft can takeoff on the angled deck of a CATOBAR ship, It’s a question of how much payload the jet can carry doing so. Short takeoff aircraft like the Harrier or F-35B can only perform short takeoffs aboard ship with limited warlords as compared with jets launched by catapult. ...


1

it’s dependent upon the aircraft in question and the approach speed that they need to use, but assuming a fighter aircraft like an F-18 with an approach speed somewhere in the neighborhood of 130 knots a typical 3.5° glideslope to impact yields a descent rate on somewhere between 600-700fpm. The faster the ship is moving at the greater the surface winds it’...


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