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My ten cents on this one: I was always taught that you fly all patterns as left handed, unless specifically cleared otherwise by ATC. Then again, I was always told you never cross the runway, on ground or in the air, without clearance. The reason for not crossing the runway is, that the ATC may have cleared a plane for takeoff, and if someone was to fly (or ...


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This appears to have been a good learning experience for both you and the controller. It seems you both made assumptions which were different for each party. At a tower controlled airport you must follow the controllers instructions regardless of any published circuit pattern. You say that the controller only said "clear to land runway 5". Was ...


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Your description sounds like the diagram below, so I'll proceed based on that. When a controller gives you a landing clearance while you are a ways out with no intermediate instructions, it's usually because there is nobody else around the controller needs to coordinate and you are being given discretion to proceed by the most direct logical routing to get ...


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In the US, there are several ways to approach a runway for landing that are generally accepted. They include, but are not limited to: Instrument approaches Visual Charted approaches Overhead approaches Circling approaches Straight in approaches Surveillance Radar Approaches No-Gyro approaches Visual approaches Contact approaches Side-step approach Base-to-...


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Both situations you describe are theoretically possible. Saying that 8000 FT is "equal" to FL80 is a false assumption. Only in one very specific situation would that be true: when the QNH is 1013. Whenever the QNH is different than 1013, 8000 FT and FL80 would be two physically different levels. In Europe, the TA and the TRL must always be ...


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The TA and TL will always be at least 1000ft apart to ensure that aircraft flying at each will always be properly separated. The TA will be a fixed value to ensure terrain and obstacle clearance, while the TL will be the lowest reasonable value that provides this minimum vertical separation above the TA. However, “reasonable” includes not having any possible ...


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I think the way rules regarding RVSM are worded in ICAO documents leaves some room for interpretation. When RVSM was implemented, it was probably not very common for aircraft to be able to climb above FL400, so this specific problem was probably not considered when writing the rules. But I would say, when in doubt, use the more conservative interpretaion, ...


1

If the controller is following FLAS - Flight Level Allocation Scheme, which permits the level, then there's no "loss of separation". FLAS typically takes the form of a diagram or table of the FL's that are allowed in a certain FIR or airspace and also the restrictions on direction, and sometimes further restrictions such as timings or Metric level ...


3

It depends. As a rule oh thumb, a missed approach will be handed over to approach (TRACON) to get a new approach clearance. Some places have local rules that allow approach to delegate this responsibility to the tower when it makes sense, which means the aircraft can then stay on the tower frequency for the new approach. This would normally require a few ...


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SoCal TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol) is the name of the facility. SoCal Approach and SoCal Departure are the call signs used over the radio by that facility, depending on whether the particular aircraft they’re talking to is arriving or departing. They’re the same controllers on the same frequencies.


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In many parts of the world, the military has reserved large parts of airspace for military activities. As a rule of thumb, civilian traffic is not permitted in these areas. Traditionally, such military areas were reserved 24/7, regardless of whethere there actually was any military activity at a given time. This is not very efficient, as it forces civilian ...


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Good question. The appropriate term in aviation for "Acknowledged" is the term "Roger." The only time I hear the word "Acknowledged" is on Star Trek and other tv shows or movies. As mentioned above, "Acknowledged" is not a Pilot-Controller term, although a controller might ask you to "acknowledge" something ...


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The flight data provided by the various aggregators, including the OpenSky Network is gathered by volunteers operating ADS-B receivers at their own expense. OpenSky had about 1100 receivers on line when I looked, covering predominantly Europe and the US (FlightRadar24 claim 13000 and use other sources as well.) The range of ADS-B transmissions is limited by ...


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Being an Air Traffic Controller does not provide any legal shortcuts for piloting courses, in any jurisdiction as far as I am aware. Sure, you could probably sleep through the lectures on meteorology and maybe parts of others, but you still need to sit and pass all 14 exams. You would have little to no advantage on the subjects of aerodynamics, aircraft ...


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According to ICAO Annex 10 v.2-2016 8/11/18 No 91 5.2.1.4.1.2 FL 200 - flight level two hundred FL 190 - flight level one nine zero


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In the UK, the phraseology bible is CAP 413 and that does not list the term "Acknowledged" as standard phraseology at all. The phrase "ACKNOWLEDGE" can be used by the asker to: Let me know that you have received and understood this message. And is responded usually with: Acknowledgements of information should be signified by the use of ...


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Your confusion is understandable, since, back in 2016, a number of countries changed this phraseology as ICAO published the 7th edition of Annex 10. In the EU specifically, EU regulation 2016/1185 applies, which states that, generally speaking, each digit should be spoken separately, but with some exceptions: Flight levels shall be transmitted by ...


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Very clearly the answer is: to follow the TCAS. Remember too that the TCAS systems coordinate with each other and provide the RA's accordingly.


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With today's larger turbine engines, there's no "run up" as such except in icing conditions with temperatures below about 3 degrees Celsius. Under more normal conditions, both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney engines powering today's biggest jets need about 3 minutes and 5 minutes respectively, of no more than taxi thrust levels and oil ...


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“Flight level two zero zero” would be standard pronunciation. While everyone should use proper radio phraseology the system is not 100% perfect and you may hear other things on the actual radio. The AIM provides a good example 4-2-9 Altitudes and Flight Levels a) Up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL, state the separate digits of the thousands plus the ...


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Movies frequently get pilot language wrong, and this is no exception. Acknowledge is a command, not a response. ATC would instruct a pilot to acknowledge a transmission, and that is then acknowledged Affirmative is not the correct phraseology, pilots say Affirm only for yes. Negative means no, so affirmative is not said because it could be confused with ...


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"Acknowledged" means I heard you & understood what you said & I take responsibility for the information you just gave me. "Affirm" and its opposite, "negative," are answers to a yes/no question. They aren't really interchangeable, although Hollywood script writers are notorious for getting details like that wrong. An ...


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The topic is as relevant as it was when it was initially posted. So some notes: I'd say missing an ATC directed turn off the runway, after a correct and confirmed readback, could be a violation, but clearly, this wasn't the case. So no violation, and no intended violation of procedure, but there certainly was an error as you point out yourself. In the ...


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In normal circumstances, you're not supposed to remain on a runway longer than you need for normal operational reasons, be it after landing, or before take-off. Infact, at major/congested airports "Minimum RWY Occupancy Time" procedures are predetermined for both dep and arrival, so as to take the concept to it's limits. So, to minimize your time ...


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I work at an airport which closes at night. We have a control zone (class D), a TMA (also class D) and some surrounding airspace (class G/E). Tower and Approach control is provided locally during opening hours. When the airport closes, we call the area control centre responsible for the surrounding airspace, and they take over responsibility. In addition, ...


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To add to StevenS answer, a Class D airport will usually revert to a Class E or G airspace after the tower closes. The hours and the subsequent airspace change will be noted in the US Chart Supplement. Most of the Class B airports that I know of generally do not close. Some busy Class C and D airports also do not close. Although, the FAA has reduced hours on ...


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All airspace is ultimately owned by some Center (US: ARTCC, ICAO: ACC). Some is delegated to Approach facilities (US: TRACON), and Approach can sub-delegate part of their airspace to a Tower. And Center can delegate airspace directly to Towers without an overlying Approach. If any facility closes, it’s associated airspace automatically reverts back to ...


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I’ve been looking for years myself, and this is the best facility map I’ve been able to find so far, shared in a private forum by some ATC folks: I know this is exactly the kind of “cartoon-y” outline that you don’t want, and I expect to be downvoted for it, but maybe others will better understand what you are looking for: a map of airspace ownership rather ...


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The FAA digital products page that JScarry linked to needs some explanation of how to find the phone numbers. It took me a while to find where the phone numbers are located. Go to the Browse Airports/NAVAIDs map, select your region or state. In the Search Results table, select a "NC" link in "Vol / Back Pages" column. The entire 171 page ...


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Your best bet will be to listen to recordings of taxi clearances issued by Ground Control. The chance that you can see replays of enough ASDE-X or other surface radar recordings to get a meaningful data set is probably about zero unless you can get agreements with whatever ATC facility you're interested in. While it's possible that some facility may record ...


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