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Squawk codes (Mode A replies) are transmitted in response to Mode 3/A interrogations. Altitude codes (Mode C replies) are transmitted in response to Mode C interrogations. Both Mode A and C replies use the same 12 pulse encoding, but the radar that asked the question knows how to interpret the answer (assuming there is no FRUIT or garbling, but that is ...


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Instrument Landing Systems routinely undergo maintenance and it is common to have the Glide Path unserviceable while the Localizer is still serviceable. An aircraft can still make an approach and land, but the approach is now classified as a Localizer approach. The weather limit minimums are increased from the usual 200’ above ground, to approximately 300-...


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The question is a little ambiguous. This is assuming you can get clearance for the approach and that it has not been NOTAMed as completely out of service. If you are asking about the procedure if the glideslope vertical guidance transmitter is inoperative, in most cases you treat the approach as a LOC localizer or LNAV only approach. You would use the LOC/...


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Because they have an AFIS (aerodrome flight information service), which is similar to a tower, but only provides information, not ATC. This is very common (at least outside the US) at airports which are too small to need ATC, but still too busy to just be uncontrolled. Radio communication is still mandatory, but flights do not receive a clearance and no ...


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Partial answer. In the traffic control community, red and green have the same connocation as automobile traffic lights. For example, Red denotes a route blocked at the indicated departure time, yellow denotes a partial blockage, and green indicates that the route is not blocked. -- Fig. 3, "Air traffic management decision support during convective ...


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A tower can only control what it can see, visually or with radar. The traffic in that area is at low altitude and landing or taking off many places that are not the central airport, much is VFR and not inside the space of a class D tower.


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