19

I've worked as a technical writer on flight and maintenance manuals in a previous life. It's done with technical publications where there is a kind of quasi-legal status you might say, insofar as the information published is required for operation or maintenance, is invalid for use if not up to date, and where pages are revised, numbered and dated with a ...


6

Air pressure reduces with altitude, so while an individual molecule is striking the the aircraft at 100kt, there are fewer of them. This means there is less pressure placed on whatever surface is being struck. The difference in indicated speed is simply one of a physical limitation with the air speed indicator - air speed indicators rely on dynamic pressure/...


6

The key to this is the text in yellow in the bottom right-hand corner Lower torsion link (Disassembled) The bungee is simply being used to support part of the mechanism that is being worked on. It will be removed when the work is complete and the lower torsion link reassembled.


6

This question is best answered on https://biology.stackexchange.com, but in short it is the partial pressure that counts. This is (pressure in atmospheres) * (percentage). At 0.5 atm (18 kfeet) you need twice the amount of oxygen in the air (aka 40%) for it to have the same effect on you. Above 38.5 kfeet the pressure is 0.2 atm, so even 100% oxygen will ...


5

Think of it this way. Your airspeed indicator is not directly measuring the distance traveled of any object, aircraft nor air molecules, over time. Your airspeed indicator is a pressure sensitive device that measures ram air pressure (dynamic pressure) versus static pressure. It converts that measurement into a meaningful value of airspeed. That ram air ...


5

According to ICAO PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) 16th Edition, Waypoint is a type of significant point. Mentioned in Chapter 1 - Definition as Significant point :- A specified geographical location used in defining an ATS route or the flight path of an aircraft and for other navigation and ATS purposes. Note.— There are three categories of significant points: ground-...


5

Chapters conventionally have started on odd numbered pages, so if a chapter ends on an odd page a blank is inserted on the next even page. The reasons you'll see intentionally blank pages on digital documents are: Conventions die hard in an industry as regimented as aviation A document may be in both digital and print, there's no point in having 2 versions, ...


4

The airport charts usually contain the coordinates of all parking positions. The charts that are available from the FAA AIP (e.g. here for JFK) only contain a single ground chart with the airport diagram: These do not include the coordinates. But my Jeppesen charts contain coordinates for all parking positions. E.g. some gates at JFK: They can either be ...


4

You don't measure TAS. You measure IAS (or CAS), then correct for altitude and nonstandard temperature to get TAS. As a rough rule of thumb, add 2% to the IAS per 1000ft of density altitude. With modern avionics, you know your GS from GPS or similar systems, so the difference between TAS and GS tells you the head/tailwind component and course vs heading ...


3

The answer is you don't need more oxygen. You need exactly the same AMOUNT of oxygen. But the density of the atmosphere decreases as you climb to higher altitude. (the density is created by the weight of the air above you). So the AMOUNT of oxygen in each cubic inch of atmosphere (or in each breath you take) decreases. To compensate for that, to keep the ...


3

The drag brace strut is an "overcenter" locking strut. It has a "knee action" to provide a kind of passive locking function because when moved into its overcenter position, compression forces a can only try to overcenter it more, which is prevented by the contact lugs above the center pivot and it can only fold going the other way. It ...


3

The purpose of the (bungee) cord was correctly explained by CatchAsCatchCan... however If the question is about the springs, their purpose is to help pull and lock the drag strut into it's down position. Once the drag brace jury strut reaches the level position in picture, the spring load is enough to keep the landing gear from collapsing under any "...


2

There won't be any publicly available source for what you're looking for. Any information that you could get access to (as mentioned below) won't be reliable enough to predict when the runway changes will occur. The initial coordination always happen over secured phone lines between the controllers at the radar approach/center facilities and towers. There is ...


2

Did you ever consider to look at the units in your calculation? You can't just throw together some numbers and expect a correct result. Start by converting all input to the much more sane SI units and see how it goes from there. If you plug in the units instead of the numbers on the right side of the equation, you can check for correctness by comparing to ...


2

The information you are after is, unfortunately, rather distributed. Eurocontrol maintains a useful list of websites ordered by state, found here: European AIS Or by registering for an EAD Basic account you can access the European AIS Database in a more centralised and user friendly way, found here: European AIS Database


2

TL-DR: IAS is not about speed but about dynamic pressure. You can read it as "This is how fast I would need to fly at sea level standard conditions in order to get the same dynamic pressure" As Jan Hudec pointed out already, indicated airspeed is computed from dynamic pressure. That itself is computed from total (i.e. stagnation) and static ...


2

Dynamic pressure is $$ q = ½\varrho v^2 $$ where $q$ is dynamic pressure, $\varrho$ is density and $v$ is velocity (a.k.a. true airspeed). The important bit here is that it is proportional to density and since density and pressure are closely related and pressure decreases with altitude, so does density For the intuition of particles hitting the surface, ...


2

If we're talking about transport category airplanes, the options depend to some extent on the wing. Wings with hard leading edges (no slats) and supercritical airfoils with poor stall characteristics are not very tolerant of what is called "runback ice"; ice that melts or is prevented from freezing by a warm but not hot leading edge and can run ...


1

If it is the actual steel springs we are wondering about, a thought about "convertible" sofa/beds came to mind today. Clever use of springs make these 300 lb items very easy to unfold. Springs can be placed, with the proper leverage, to help lift or move a heavy object by opposing most of its weight, with enough weight left to keep it in place. ...


1

NOTAMs are a planning aid. Before flight you look at the NOTAMs that are applicable to your route, including diversion airfields, and extrapolate the information you need. A NOTAM may make you change your route, or take a note to use a different frequency or procedure. You may make a notation on a map, for example, or a hand-written note on your pad, ...


1

Use or check? NOTAMs can give pilots of a wide range of information, so in terms of use each NOTAM is different. For example, they might tell the pilot that a frequency has changed - so that's something they may need to integrate into their flight at the relevant point. Or, the classic, is that there are standing NOTAMs in the UK that overflying Ukraine and ...


1

Which aerodromes are in the scope of ICAO recommendations? Per Annex 14, international airports only, and preferably any public use airport— 1.3.1 As of 27 November 2003, States shall certify aerodromes used for international operations in accordance with the specifications contained in this Annex as well as other relevant ICAO specifications through an ...


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