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Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

11
votes
1answer
I didn’t notice any distance regulations or recommendations regarding how far away an alternate airport may be. However, it is reasonable that, Too close: The weather between the two is likely to b …
asked Apr 8 '16 by skyoasis
7
votes
3answers
Alice is approaching KTCY on RNAV (GPS) RWY 12 at KTCY circle NE to RWY 30. When she is turning right base to RWY 30 final, she loses visual contact with runway environment and decides to go missed. S …
asked Mar 31 '16 by skyoasis
10
votes
3answers
Suppose I lost my radio communication while en-route, I am following the cleared route to the last fix. I am flying the higher of my last assigned altitude and MEA. Then, I am holding at my last en-ro …
asked Feb 16 '16 by skyoasis
7
votes
1answer
Let's find a runway where there are localizer-related procedures at both ends, e.g. KMRY: 110.7 for both ILS RWY 10R and LOC/DME RWY 28L KLAX: 108.5 for both ILS OR LOC RWY 06L and ILS OR LOC RWY 2 …
asked Apr 10 '16 by skyoasis
9
votes
3answers
Take Half Moon Bay Airport (KHAF) as an example. Under VFR, the traffic pattern is right pattern for RWY 30 and left pattern for RWY 12. This implies the downwind leg is to the EAST of the RWY 12-3 …
asked Jun 27 '16 by skyoasis
10
votes
1answer
In IFR-GPS-equipped (/G) aircraft, a pilot flies most of the segments with GPS as primary navigational resource* even the route is along victor airways or VOR radials. However, when we start the appro …
asked Apr 3 '16 by skyoasis
9
votes
2answers
A typical IFR cleared route is like, KABC VOR1 V12 VOR2 V23 VOR3 V34 VOR4 KXYZ Suppose the verbal ATC clearance is "N7890, you are cleared to KXYZ airport, KABC.ZYBUD departure, radar vector VOR1, …
asked Mar 27 '16 by skyoasis
8
votes
1answer
More precisely, in the case when a straight-in approach is present, what is the maximum angle between the final approach course and the runway heading for a straight-in minimum apply? I had thought …
asked Apr 19 '16 by skyoasis
18
votes
1answer
On some instrument approaches, the autopilot-coupled approach is not authorized or not authorized below a certain minimum. For example, Autopilot-coupled NA (MRY: ILS OR LOC RWY 10R) Autopilot-co …
asked Mar 13 '16 by skyoasis
7
votes
2answers
The standard inbound/outbound holding leg are 1 min leg each (no wind condition). I noticed that a distance (4 nm in the following example) is noted in many GPS approaches. Do we need to fly the leg a …
asked Feb 14 '16 by skyoasis
21
votes
2answers
(1) What are the legal considerations for skydiving into clouds? I see many skydivers did fall into and out clouds in online videos. However, the clouds are mostly scattered or thin-layered. How about …
asked Jan 2 '16 by skyoasis
8
votes
1answer
I had assumed during a WAAS approach when the GPS is in LPV mode, both lateral guidance and vertical guidance are generated from GPS/WAAS signals and the pitot-static system should have no effect on i …
asked Feb 28 '16 by skyoasis
4
votes
1answer
On a US IFR flight, it is required to do a VOR check every 30 days and the error tolerance is 4 degree except for airborne check. Suppose I have 4 degree error on my VOR check. When I fly an ILS and …
asked Aug 3 '16 by skyoasis
4
votes
1answer
I have known two types IFR clearance that a pilot may request with flight plan filing. Pop-up clearance: A pilot on VFR requests an IFR clearance to destination airport. ATC grants a clearance on a …
asked Apr 6 '16 by skyoasis
9
votes
2answers
As I read 14 CFR 91.169 literally, I understand an alternate airport listing waiver can be granted if the destination airport Has at least one instrument approach procedure from an authorized source …
asked Apr 2 '16 by skyoasis

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