# All Questions

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1answer
121 views

### What means when center of pressure is out of physical dimension of wing?

Center of pressure(CoP) is point where total force vector acting at. If you hold wing at this point, wing will not rotate(moment=0). Example hanging point at hanglider. I see at some diagrams for very ...
1answer
133 views

### What would a Category II ILS approach require that a Category III approach wouldn't?

According to @RalphJ's first comment on my earlier question about ILS approaches in an E-Jet sans pitch trim: Are you sure that Cat III approaches are allowed in that condition? Typically, Cat III ...
1answer
185 views

### How do you realign a directional gyro in an area of magnetic unreliability?

The primary means of determining heading in most small aircraft is the directional gyro, as this instrument is unaffected by the magnetic dip errors that cause a magnetic compass to give the wrong ...
2answers
257 views

### Why is aircraft design so simple compare to other aero-applications?

All design in aviation is relatively simple and clean, without some fancy stuff, compare to others aero-applications. What is reason for this, because every aero application has same goal, get lift ...
1answer
241 views

### What are the advantages and disadvantages of fluidic thrust vectoring on aircraft?

The Rockwell XFV-12 was a research project for combining supersonic speed with Vertical Take-Off and Landing, From wikipedia: The XFV-12 used a thrust augmented wing concept... in which exhaust would ...
2answers
198 views

### Why is a Mode S transponder required to be installed and working for TCAS II to be operational?

I am wondering why a Mode S transponder is required to be installed and working for TCAS II to be operational? I read such phrase in Eurocontrol ACAS II guide and I don't understand why mode A/C is ...
0answers
69 views

### How expensive is the structural materials on a stealth aircraft compared to its other components?

Well, I couldn't find much information about the prices on the materials used on stealth aircraft, but nevertheless, its huge price tags are often quite obvious. The B-2 bomber, for example, costs 2 ...
3answers
153 views

### How the AOA, Pitch and FPA are changing during a flight maneuver

For a steady state flight, there is a equation that FPA + AOA = Pitch, but how these three variables are correlated during a flight maneuver like currently I am in a leveling flight and then I want to ...
1answer
129 views

### Why do you have to turn off the prop sync when changing the engine rpm? [closed]

I understand how prop sync works, I just don't understand why you have to have to turn it off to switch the rpm. Is there something that I am missing?
2answers
94 views

### Could ramjets be implemented on sub/super-sonic aircraft wings due to the shockwaves generated by them?

Well, I'm a ignorant on aerodynamics and such, but let me explain first: In this video (it could be just a video, but) it is said that wings are angled backwards to avoid supersonic shock waves ...
1answer
83 views

### Can a Magnus/Coanda effect be used on wings with hot gases for more efficiency? What are current aircrafts that uses such system?

Well, I don't know much about this type of mechanism, and the only post I could find that has something similar to what I'm asking is this one, but isn't quite what I'm asking. So, the idea would be ...
1answer
98 views

### Could small ramjets on the tip of propellers allow for supersonic spin of turbine blades?

Well, of course, if it was practical, someone would've already done that, but I'm still curious. As you can imagine, I'm an illiterate on the matter of aerodynamics, and even though supersonic ...
2answers
168 views

### Why large freighter planes still do not use intermodal (ship) containers given that size and shape are not problems?

Recently I found this article this article about the concept of directly sit on a pile of intermodal containers and lock them in place. Whether it is plausible to open such a huge opening ventral of ...
1answer
5k views

### What is this 3-engine beast?

What is this 3-engine beast? It has an unusual 6-bladed propeller as well.
1answer
182 views

### The Fokker Universal has a crank you have to spin rapidly upon startup. What is it?

The Fokker Universal is one of my favorite aircraft. There is only one complete representation of it in existence at a museum in Canada. A video series I saw on YouTube tells the story of its ...
1answer
153 views

### Why didn't ejection seats become a thing in civil avation and only limited to military? [duplicate]

Recently, an Indian CDS Bipin Rawat and his family as well as eleven members of the Indian Army died in an helicopter crash. You can find the story here. I did look at any questions asked on the topic ...
1answer
2k views

### What are these SR-71 "Ports" for?

In this video at the 2:40 minute mark there is a relatively clear image of the rear of a Blackbird. This is a new view - at least for me. Are those "ports" and, if so, what are they venting?...
0answers
99 views

### What are the operational differences between the ILS CATs? [duplicate]

I know ILS CAT is classified by DH, and RVR, but I want to know what's difference between ILS CAT operationally. For example, CAT 3 approach should be autolanding. (I am not sure) And, if RVR is 600m ...
1answer
125 views

### What are the feasibility of making a spherical aircraft using Magnus/Coanda Effect? [closed]

Well, I'm quite ignorant in aerodynamics in general, but I couldn't find any aircraft that fits this description. And yes, I know that wouldn't be as efficient as a conventional aircraft, but I'm ...
0answers
39 views

### PPL EASA(A) exam cross-country flight altitude

I need find explanation for EASA PPL(A) question. According to the Boeing Courseware correct answer is "a", but I can't find explanations in course materials neither in SERA or German AIP (...
1answer
121 views

### Why the European Eurofighter Typhoon did not have pitot tube in front of the radome? [closed]

The layout of the aircraft does not have the proper pitot tube. I believe that the aircraft needs clean airflow for its instruments .
2answers
956 views

### G Load during payload drop

Some days ago I saw the accident of the airtractor that, just after a drop, suffered a spar failure in both the wings. Luckily the pilot survived. If load factor in his simplest formula is: n=lift/...
6answers
3k views

### Why not extend the downwind when first learning to land?

I'm supposed to turn base when I see my touchdown point is 45° off my shoulder. But I'm a newbie and final has a lot for me to handle all at once. I'm sure as I improve it will become easier, but what ...
1answer
77 views

### What are all the different ways pilots can navigate?

What are all the different ways pilots can navigate? What are they in simple terms and their unique advantages/disadvantages? EX: Dead-reckoning? VOR? GPS? ATC Directives? Others?
2answers
203 views

### What are specified rudder pedal forces?

Zeus have previously provided us with links to aviation certifications standards (e.g. FAR 23.155, FAR 23.397). I think Far 23.155 specifies the forces to provide maximum elevator control signal. But ...
3answers
318 views

### Why have high lift devices on both leading and trailing edge?

Trailing edge devices such as flaps increase lift by raising lift coefficient at s given AoA. Leading edge devices such as slats increase lift by raising stall AoA. The former is nice because it ...
3answers
4k views

### Examples of unmanned airports?

I just found this sentence on Wikipedia: In aviation, some possibly unmanned airports have equipment that let pilots key their VHF radio a number of times in order to request an Automatic Terminal ...
3answers
4k views

### Why don't most planes fly in a straight path? [duplicate]

Take a look at these images: As you can see, in all the images, the flight paths are curved. As far as I know, the shortest path between two points is a straight line. Planes usually would take the ...
1answer
132 views

### Are there any regulations, standards or guidelines covering checklist typesetting, content, etc.?

I hope this question is on-topic for the site via ‘aviation safety’, as several aspects of checklist design are important as the actual content of the checklist e.g. ability to quickly hone in on the ...
2answers
95 views

### How calculate lift/drag using static pressure taps in wind tunnel test?

An airfoil section in a wind tunnel has many static taps on its upper and lower surface. These static ports can only read static pressure which acts perpendicularly to the local airfoil surface. In ...
1answer
215 views

### Can I overfly Canada on BasicMed?

I’m an FAA PPL using BasicMed. I know Transport Canada doesn’t recognize BasicMed, so I certainly wouldn’t try landing in Canada. However, can I legally fly from one US airport through Canadian ...
1answer
186 views

### Can a Localizer Backcourse signal be reversed (at the site antenna)?

Can the two Localizer Backcourse signals (90Hz and 150 Hz) be reversed (at the site antenna) eliminating reverse needle sensing when flying a Localizer Backcourse approach? If so, are there any ...
2answers
87 views

### Help with calculate forces from pressure distribution

V=50m/s deltaPg= -981 Pa deltaPd=490,5 Pa c=1m r.com/PCshZ.png Above is calculate Fz with integrals and with average pressure. Why F3 is calculate from 0 to C/2 if pressure distribution is drawn at ...
1answer
291 views

### Why did Concorde have a large anhedral?

Why does Concorde and many other deltas have their wings bent down?
1answer
110 views

### Which aircraft is easier to land-- Supermarine Spitfire or North American P-51 Mustang? [closed]

Which aircraft is easier to land (without ground-looping)-- the Supermarine Spitfire or the North American P-51 Mustang? If the answer is different depending on conditions (e.g. no-wind versus ...
1answer
239 views

### Can anyone identify this project please?

This is a large photo of what looks like a model, with an Armstrong Whitworth stamp on the back. Any ideas please?
1answer
85 views

### How to solve normal and axial aerodynamic force coefficients integral equation to calculate lift coefficient for an airfoil?

$$c_n = \frac{1}{c} \left[ \int_0^c (C_{p,l} - C_{p,u}) \, dx + \int_0^c \left(c_{f, u} \frac{dy_u}{dx} + c_{f,l} \frac{dy_l}{dx} \right) dx \right]$$  c_a = \frac{1}{c} \left[ \int_0^c \left(C_{p,...
3answers
1k views

### Is it possible to fly to any destination on a rhumb line track?

If we follow a constant rhumb line track, it would eventually lead to the pole (depending on your hemisphere) , so then it may not be possible to fly between any two points on a rhumb line track? ...
1answer
249 views

### Why does the INIT page on the A320 MCDU have "FLT NBR" instead of "CALL SIGN"?

My understanding is that the call sign is entered for FLT NBR on the INIT page (e.g. EZY8418), not the flight number (U28418). I have heard of reports of pilots mistakenly entering the flight number ...
6answers
3k views

### At what speed will the crankshaft be rotating if each cylinder of a four-stroke cycle engine is to be fired 200 times a minute?

Well the answer is 400rpm ; but I don't understand how. Here's my thought process: 4 stroke engine would mean every piston is in a different stage (intake, compression, power, exhaust) Which means 200 ...
1answer
303 views

### What's the penalty for exceeding 250 kts below 10,000 ft MSL without authorization?

What if any enforcement actions by the FAA are likely for exceeding the 250 KIAS limitation below 10,000 ft MSL?
1answer
284 views

### Why might flight schools prohibit you from testing pitot heat during pre-flight?

Why might flight schools prohibit you from testing pitot heat during pre-flight? I know of a school in Texas that has this policy but don’t understand why. Here is a snippet of the C172 AFM which ...
1answer
72 views

### Thrust varaition of a Turbofan engine with altitude and mach number [duplicate]

my classmates and I are trying to find a mathematical model for a low bypass turbofan engine, we ended up finding a model given by Snorri on "General Aviation Aircraft Design", but the ...
1answer
103 views

### Early "digital" rotating digit wheel type gauges

The XB-70 has a "digital" gauge showing the total fuel quantity using six rotating digit wheels (as in mechanical counters, odometers etc), and another showing the fuel quantity in the tank ...
8answers
3k views

### How would you design an airplane to counteract a single engine’s left turning tendencies?

How would you design an airplane to counteract a single engine’s left turning tendencies caused by torque, p-factor, spiraling slipstream and gyroscopic precession without pilot input or use of rudder?...
2answers
283 views

### Does the FAA take programming language selection of the aircrafts' avionics as a factor when deciding the aircraft's airworthiness certificate?

It looks like many military/space/aviation instruments are programmed in Ada or Spark. Because these languages claimed and proved their safety. What if your system is not written in these languages? ...
5answers
2k views

### What specific hazard is the practice of identifying an ILS LOC by Morse code trying to prevent?

This question got me wondering about the practice of tuning a navigation frequency, selecting it on the audio panel, and then identifying it by listening to the three letter Morse code signal. I know ...
2answers
90 views

### What are the effects of missing questions on an FAA Written exam?

I took my Instrument Rating written exam this morning and scored an 85% (which is 51/60). Not bad, but I am worried about what this might bring about in the future. If I remember correctly for my ...
0answers
171 views

### Is the Morse code identifier required continuously when using a VHF NAVAID for navigation?

I am thinking of getting an MGL N16 VHF Nav radio with the MGL Vega V16 Control head. It has an interesting mode of operation (referred to as SCAN Mode) where the single receiver in the N16 rapidly ...
0answers
104 views

### What are these holes on the intake of Progress D-18T which are mounted on AN-225?

I was seeing a Progress D-18T of AN-225 and saw these holes on the intake of them. What are they for?

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