# All Questions

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124 views

### Does aircraft/ATC get any information directly from a weather balloon?

We have been launching radiosonde (a meteorological instrument containing GPS and other sensors to measure meteorological variables attached to a balloon filled with Hydrogen) to obtain meteorological ...
60 views

### What kind of motors are used in electric autopilot servos?

In terms of general aviation/experimental autopilot servos for control surfaces, are these motors usually brushless DC or stepper motors? Some examples are: Garmin GSA 28 (brushless DC) Dynon ...
237 views

### What is the helicopter in the background of this image of the V-22 Osprey?

I found a photo of a V-22 Osprey alongside an unknown helicopter on the left corner:
222 views

### Do I understand the rules of logging cross-country time as a Safety Pilot correctly?

Let's say there is a private pilot ("primary pilot") practicing instrument training under the hood and a private pilot who is a Safety Pilot, and the flight involves a landing at an airport ...
118 views

### How does a bearingless rotor work on a helicopter?

I have read about some helicopters now using a mechanism referred to as a "bearingless rotor". From what I've seen online, the system involves a flapping hinge. What I struggle to get my ...
121 views

### Runway incursion episode/incident

Situation: I’m at the uncontrolled small airport (one runway and one taxi way). The runway in the direction I will be taking requires backtaxing. I’m ready to taxi, I check the radio and get ‘clear ...
198 views

### Am I expected to stay on glide slope for landing in a light aircraft?

When I land the airplane (Cessna 172, 182, 152) I notice that I come in pretty far above glide slope (four white lights on the PAPI). I pick an aiming spot on the runway (like the second center line ...
90 views

### Any idea what this Ampaire plane is?

(Source) This is certainly not the Ampaire 337 or Electric EEL, which is a converted Cessna 337. It looks like a boundary layer ingestor. Being from Ampaire, it probably is electric or hybrid. I've ...
542 views

### What is this metal piece sticking up on the roof of a 182?

My CFI and I were stumped as to what the purpose of this metal piece is on the roof of a 182. I couldn't find anything from searching Cessna POHs/docs online... Any ideas? Here is a close-up:
129 views

### Is there a legal requirement for planes to start from the ground?

If I could somehow store a plane inside another plane, would I be allowed to start the second plane somewhere in the air? Maybe different countries have different laws for this kind of aviation? I ...
165 views

### Is the Batjet Design Physically Feasible?

I realize the plane is fictional. However, in the Batman Animated Series by Warner Bros, we see this Batjet. So this got me thinking (and I'm not a physicist): is this air frame configuration even ...
63 views

### Is Chinese WS-13 jet engine in serial production?

The Guizhou WS-13 was being developed to power Chinese JF-17 and J-31 fighter jets. Is its development complete? Is it certified/finalized for serial production?
196 views

### Anyone recognize this airport?

I found this image on boldmethod. Where is this? Looks like a beautiful place. Has an instrument approach (from the runway markings.) On a mesa in snow country. It is not Sedona or St George. ...
4k views

### Are planes allowed to fly in circles, and is there a minimum legal altitude for takeoff and landing?

I live near a small, possibly private, airport. Every day there are small planes flying low over the neighborhood in circles for over half an hour. They appear to just be flying for recreational ...
147 views

### Has a civil aviation accident ever involved more than two manned aircraft?

Has a civil aviation accident ever involved more than two manned aircraft? Meaning, in one accident: more than two manned aircraft had fatalities or serious injuries or significant damage; or one or ...
127 views

### Was it ever considered to optimise a jet to normally operate with one engine shut off?

As I understand it, the current trend to reduce all commercial aircraft to no more than two turbofans has long-relevant reasons – the more engines, the higher the fuel consumption – and earlier jets ...
36 views

### How is NASA going to get high fuel economy on the X-57? [duplicate]

This X-plane is meant to fly soon. It's a modified Tecnam. The propeller direct wash over the wings, increasing lift. This allows the use of a smaller, high-aspect ratio, low drag wing. But this isn'...
97 views

### How is the term “Coast” defined for FAA regulatory purposes?

14 CFR 91.1 defines the applicability of part 91. This paragraph defines two areas of jurisdiction where certain parts of part 91 apply: within the United States, including the waters within 3 ...
57 views

### What's a normal response delay for a paragliding vario?

I'm a paragliding pilot with P4 licence and I've purchased a 2nd-hand FLYMASTER B1NAV flight instrument for XC flights – mainly for logging the flights (route, distance, max. speed etc). It is an ...
154 views

### What is the reason for the fence aft of the static ports on some airplanes and helicopters?

Airbus AS350 helicopters and Bell 206 helicopters have a 1/2" long fence behind the static port. CRJ 200/700 have a .060" step on the aft side of the static port. What would be the reason ...
44 views

### How do you calculate the wing moment coefficient knowing the moment at each spanwise station?

A lot of theoretical formulas exist for finding the moment coefficient for airfoils, but I have been confused by how to get the moments for a wing. I came up with three related questions that have ...
24 views

### Why don't most business class seats fold out fully? [migrated]

My issue is as follows: Why almost all business class seats do not recline to a full flat configuration? Is it a design challenge that is difficult to overcome? I understand that it may save space (...
26 views

### FIS-B lookahead for SUA Status

While reading over the recent FDC NOTAMs, I saw this interesting entry come up: ...
218 views

### What were those two military helicopters that I recorded?

I have recently recorded two military helicopters. Here is a screenshot of it:
148 views

### What altitude restrictions are there in Class C airspace?

So if I'm flying into a Class C airspace, I call approach and I establish radio contact and tell them I want to land, then I enter the airspace. If I'm still talking to approach and haven't been ...
185 views

### Are General Aviation tires filled with Nitrogen?

Long story short, I'm working on a concept for a book. We all know why commercial aircraft have nitrogen tires, but my question is if GA aircraft have nitrogen tires, or are they just filled with ...
229 views

### What happens in an F-16 once the aircraft exeeds its service ceiling?

What exactly is the sequence of events that would unfold as an F-16 attempts to exceed its service ceiling? The scenario is simply full afterburner and attempting to simply climb higher and higher (at ...
47 views

### What is the difference between Guidance Law and Control Law?

What is the formal definition of the two in terms of flight control theory? My understanding is that a guidance law directs the high-level motion or direction of the aircraft and generally produces a &...
122 views

### Is there a common route that Seattle GA pilots use to circle Mt Rainier while avoiding class B airspace?

I'd like to fly around Mount Rainier in a C172 out of Renton (KRNT). What route do people usually take? I wonder if I can climb quickly enough once out of Seattle class B airspace for terrain around ...
38 views

### How to determine the number of copression stages given a compression ratio?

I have a personal project to design a gas turbine engine, the main problem that nags me is how do I determine the pressure rise in each stage of an axial compressor? Say, I'm planning on a 38:1 engine ...
93 views

### Does the yoke move when trimming a THS like it does when using elevator trim?

I would like a clarification from the operational point of view: Both the THS and elevator trim tab is used to remove pilot pressure on the yoke / stick. On the elevator trim similar to the C-172 the ...
110 views

### How can a designer deal with a strict requirement when designing an aircraft?

I'm working on designing an aircraft with some specific requirements (Vstall, Vmax, Ceiling, Payload, Range, RoC, Slanding/takeoff etc). I'm following Anderson's and Raymer's ways (trying to find the ...
49 views

### Does navigation database provided by the database providers like Aeronavdata or Jeppesen consists of company routes?

Does navigation database provided by the database providers like Aeronavdata or Jeppesen etc consists of company routes . How is the company routes maintained are those modifiable by the OEMs ? Is ...
79 views

### What is meant by these criteria for a stabilized approach? [closed]

Based on regulation, there are several criteria for when an approach is stabilized. I want to ask: Only small changes in heading/pitch. How small? The aircraft is in correct landing configuration. ...
141 views

### Can an aircraft climb with the thrust line below the line of flight? [closed]

"Downthrust" is a common engine mount feature of propeller driven aircraft, models and full scale alike. From model building experience and flight, downthrust, angling the (tractor) engine ...
193 views

68 views

### How do I calculate drift based on NDB readings?

An aircraft is to track from NDB A to NDB B. The RMI of NDB B reads 357 & RMI of NDB A reads 177. The aircraft is: A: Drifted left of track B: Drifted right of track C: On track I think it is 'C' ...
265 views

### What is the role of a CFI (not CFII) as safety pilot for hood time?

I am an instrument student at a flight school with a "primary" CFII whom I'm logging dual instruction time. Things are going pretty well, making progress but the instructor has been ...
146 views

### Are aircraft pilots required to fly runway heading for a certain distance?

If an aircraft rotates off the runway relatively quickly (runway mid-point for example), do pilot's need to continue on the runway heading for a minimum distance before turning based on departure ...
22 views

### The lift and moment of the tail equations

We have The lift of the tail, $$L_t = C_L.q.S_t$$ The moment of the tail around c.g. $$M_(cg,t) = C_M.q.S.c$$ look at the S in the two equations. Why the lift of the tail is proportional to the ...
211 views

### Can the acting PIC sit in the back?

For a planned ferry flight under FAA Part 91, this is the scenario: Two of us, let's call us A and B (rated pilots for that airplane), want to sit in front and do the flying. A highly experienced ...
97 views

### Can any US airline fly to and from any US city it wants to?

I am trying to understand the US commercial aviation industry. Assuming that slots are available, are US airlines permitted to fly to and from any US city they want to? Or are there limited permits ...
100 views

### In the context of aircraft design, what are the differences between a flat plate shaped airfoil and a droplet shaped airfoil? [closed]

I am relatively new to aerodynamics and am curious to know what difference it makes on an aircraft - lift, drag, weight etc - which of the two airfoils is used on the wing.
83 views

### What is the angle of Incidence of wing of Airbus A320?

What is the Angle of Incidence/ Mounting Angle of the wing of AIRBUS A320?
121 views

### Do I need to change cruising altitudes for really short legs?

Let's say I'm cruising on a magnetic course of 150, so I'm flying at 7,500 feet. Then I need to fly for 6 miles on a magnetic course of 210, then back to 150. Do I need to switch to 8,500 or 6,500 ...
104 views

### Should I use rudder to recover from power-on stalls?

I was executing a power-on stall, and upon stalling the nose dropped and the plane rolled hard right. I promptly applied left rudder and released yoke backpressure to recover, and the plane recovered ...
70 views

### Where is flight following available?

What local facilities are required for me to get flight following services? It seems that if I'm 100 miles from any control tower then I won't be able to get flight following. How close does a ...
229 views

### Why do countries not bound by US law comply with the FAA's originate airworthiness directives?

I'm not an aviation or private international lawyer, but is it true that countries unbound by US law, i.e. most if not all countries outside the US, still comply with the FAA's directives? If so, is ...