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5
votes
5answers
229 views

How do aircraft instruments determine the aircraft's orientation relative to the ground?

Autopilots exist for airplanes and drones, how is orientation measured with respect to ground? In particular how is the direction of gravity detected and how is it differentiated from acceleration due ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

What are the stability criteria of helicopters?

In airplanes, longitudinal stability is maintained if centre of lift lies aft of center of gravity. Like in the airplane shown in the figure below, do helicopters also have stability criteria? They ...
-2
votes
0answers
49 views

What are the definitions of stages and sequences when describing a flight, and how do they compare against leg/portion/sector/segment? [closed]

I read: Question: In what case doesn't a coupon correspond to a segment? Comment: This is getting into the weeds of terminology that most travelers don't need to deal with; there are also sectors and ...
10
votes
4answers
4k views

What is this radial-engined US Navy aircraft in Iceland?

My parents are traveling in Iceland and sent me a few pictures of an old radial-engined aircraft. It has "United States Navy" markings on the side, "Keflavik 17131" on the tail, ...
-1
votes
2answers
38 views

When can an ASEL CFI with Commercial AMEL rating provide and log dual given?

Specifically Does not hold MEI. Has 0 hours in Cessna 310. Can he provide and log dual given in that Cessna 310? and, What if he is not AMEL only ASEL? Current regulation? 14 CFR 61.51(e)(3) https://...
-1
votes
0answers
107 views

Will the plane take off from the ground? [closed]

Good day, everyone. I need help here. I'm working on an ultralight aircraft. Here are the details: Propeller diameter: 1.2 m Engine: 15 HP / 3600 RPM gasoline engine Plane weight: 50 kg empty + ~9 ...
2
votes
1answer
190 views

What are these holes at the rear of 747s?

What are these two holes at the rear of most 747s? I've found plenty of answers for the holes on the front of the wing box, but no answers about these back holes.
2
votes
1answer
68 views

My medical cert is expired and can I fly as a sport pilot?

I'm CFI and one of my student haven't flown after he got his private pilot license in 1990's and he wanted to fly again. The thing is his medical is expired already and he doesn't fit medical ...
1
vote
3answers
64 views

Why is the maneuvering point (Va) in the V-n diagram defined as the upper intersection point? Why not the lower point one?

in my textbook and apparently everywhere online I have found that Va or cornering velocity is defined to be the point of intersection where the stall line and the limit load factor line meet. ...
3
votes
2answers
106 views

How does afterburning not affect upstream air in the engine?

I've read in many books that afterburners are designed not to affect the upstream engine components, so if there's a large amount of combustion going on after the addition of afterburner fuel, how ...
4
votes
3answers
341 views

Did the jet stream really stop the B-29, or was it just bad luck?

The B-29 bomber, used in WWII, was designed as a high altitude bomber, capable of operating from altitudes in excess of 30,000 feet. However, starting with their first missions to Tokyo in Nov 1944, ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Reducing popularity of 4 engine aircraft [duplicate]

We can see that now most latest airplanes by Boeing and Airbus like 737 max or A350 have twin engine configuration instead of 4 engine. And many airlines are discarding iconic 747s and A380s. What is ...
24
votes
11answers
7k views

Is there an example of a classic aviation engineering moment when engineers had to discard all their work due to the wrong approach?

Is there any classic aviation/space engineering moment where the engineers had been working on a concept for months and then realised that their approach to the problem wasn't quite right and so had ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

How do Luneberg lenses hide a stealth aircraft's real signature?

I thought aircraft was supposed to be stealth and not show up on radar under the right conditions. This article says Removable Luneburg lens type radar reflectors are sometimes attached to military ...
1
vote
2answers
89 views

Conflicting A320 Climb Profiles

In the Airbus brochure (more like a book) Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance, the standard climb profile for the A320 family is mentioned as 250 kt / 300 kt / M0.78 With this accompanying ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

Can an ultralight be flown at night or IFR?

In Canada, can an ultralight be flown at night or IFR by a PPL pilot with a night flying or IFR endorsement if the ultralight is equipped for night flying or IFR ( eg. heated pitot tube, nav lights, ...
4
votes
0answers
57 views

Can a US citizen fly a US ultralight into Canada?

Can a US citizen (no pilot license) fly a US ultralight into Canada or any other country? Due to a special exemption, Canadian pilots can fly a basic ultralight (registered but no certificate of ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Are vortex generators considered high lift devices on US ultralights?

Are US ultralights allowed to have vortex generators? I understand US ultralights are required to have a landing speed of 28mph without the use of high lift devices. I understand this is so that the ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What are the minimum pilot certification and flight time to serve as SIC under Part 135?

What are the minimum pilot certification and flight hours to serve as SIC under Part 135 in a normal, fixed-wing operation?
0
votes
0answers
32 views

How is washout built into a fibreglass wing?

How is washout built into a fibreglass foam core wing of a GA Airplane with 40% span flaps, 40% span ailerons. Does the angle of indigence change gradually over the span of the wing, or is the airfoil ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Why do the landing gears of Boeing 767 and certain Airbus aircraft tilt down? [duplicate]

I need help and some explanation on why are they sometimes tilted down instead of up.
1
vote
4answers
170 views

Which way to turn to return to runway for downwind landing— into crosswind or with crosswind?

The scenario-- you are taking off with a significant headwind component but also a significant crosswind component. You experience a power loss (or perhaps a tow rope break in a glider). You judge ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

Strange C560 flight over the Netherlands - circling and extreme variations in altitude. Possible reconaissance or military?

Last night around 24.00 I noticed a plane flying very low over my house. Intrigued, I tracked the flight on FlightRadar and went digging for records. It turned out to be Cessna 560 Citation Encore+, ...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

Which flight maneuver is better for a takeoff emergency after liftoff, a tear drop (180° turn) or a 360° turn?

Let us say I got a time critical emergency right after the liftoff (like a fire, complete power loss) and I need do a return-to-runway and re-land maneuver. Which option is better, a 180-degree turn ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Why would I want to lower the stall speed?

Why would a cargo pilot for example want to dump fuel to lower the stall speed? I understand that lowering the weight decreases the stall speed, meaning it is "easier" for the plane to reach ...
6
votes
2answers
182 views

Could Sudden Decompression Cause You to be Shot Out of the Tunnel on a B-29?

One of the features of the WWII B-29 bomber was that it was pressurized. The aircraft had pressurized areas in the front and the back of the aircraft. Connecting the two was a pressurized tunnel over ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Standard Size to Print a sectional chart?

What sizes does the sectional charts are sold at? I downloaded it from here, and was able to print it on a large format printer. https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav/productcatalog/...
2
votes
1answer
134 views

What is the maximum range over open water with twin-engine to require dinghy in EASA?

What is the maximum range for a twin-engine aircraft to fly over open water before having the requirement for flotation devices (vests / dinghy) under EASA-rules?
2
votes
0answers
30 views

What documents do I need to take a German airplane outside of Schengen but still within the EU? [closed]

What kind of documents are required for customs or police if one flies out of Schengen (in this case a German-registered aircraft) and lands in a non-Schengen state within the EU?
2
votes
1answer
286 views

What is the difference between equilibrium and steady flight?

If I'm flying a regular Cessna 172 and its perfectly trimmed and flying in circles holding the same altitude, is the aircraft in equilibrium? Or steady flight? (The definition of equilibrium flight ...
5
votes
1answer
768 views

When is it appropriate to foam a landing strip? (example JB292)

Background: I recently watched the Channel5 documentary on JetBlue 292 with their famous sideways landing gear. At around the 8:00-mark you see footage of the actual landing: Main landing gear intact ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Why are ejection seats not used in commercial passenger airline planes? [duplicate]

This question may sound a bit strange. But if a plane full of people traveling to their destination goes down, why not drop the seats? Or eject them sideways. Or however. At a height where it's ...
19
votes
4answers
7k views

When a bomber releases a huge payload of bombs, why don't they collide with each other in mid air?

Below given are images of bombers releasing many bombs at the same time. Why don't they collide with each other?
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How to calculate Longitudinal dynamic stability derivative for a wing? Mq and Mα

How to calculate Moment due to rate of change in pitch(Mq) and Moment due to rate of change in AOA(Mα) manually and How to extract from CFD software? Consider a fighter aircraft is in Case 1- Cruise ...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Pilot without medical needs me to fly with him. Can I log?

I have spent most of my career in the military and just started flying for a civilian flight school, so I am still trying to learn some of the gray areas of the civilian world. I am a CFI/CFII. An ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How do airliner pilots practice recovering from a bounced landing?

Other questions say bouncing an airliner is bad, why bounces happen, and how to recover from a bounce. How do pilots practice bounce recovery?
3
votes
3answers
968 views

At what altitude do pilots usually switch to departure?

I contribute to an open-source ATC sim, and I'm looking to advance one of our current features. I know this is widely variable, but is there a typical example, either in distance from the airport, or ...
1
vote
2answers
175 views

What are the effects of placing the vertical stabilizer at the front of the aircraft? [duplicate]

I am experimenting with different aircraft designs. The one I am trying right now is a canard (horizontal stabilizer at the front) and the main wings are quite far back. I wondered if it would be of ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing

As a part of the engineering thesis I work on the methods of modeling of aerodynamic characteristics of wing. In it, I rise an issue related to the impact of changes of aircraft attitude during ...
4
votes
1answer
105 views

If an airplane has a Vertical Speed Indicator is there a requirement that it be periodically checked for accuracy?

I believe I understand that there is no specific US FAA requirement for aircraft to carry a Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI). I believe I understand the basic operation of a VSI. It measures the rate ...
0
votes
0answers
191 views

Does this Max Faget April 1, 1969 design for the Space Shuttle look familiar? Is it similarity to existing aircraft at the time?

This answer to Who are the actual lead designers of manned spacecraft? in Space Exploration SE says (in its entirety): Max Faget was involved in the design of every US manned spacecraft flown to date....
3
votes
2answers
99 views

Is total upwards vertical force higher than weight in a steady climb? [closed]

And again related to questions on forces in a climb: if any aircraft is climbing with a constant velocity, is total upwards force higher than weight?
1
vote
0answers
148 views

Tail Warning Radar on the P-51

One of the "features" of the P-51 was a tail warning radar that was supposed to let pilots know if an enemy fighter was on your tail. However, a P-51 pilot told me that they generally ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Formula for comparing drag on planes flying at different speeds at different altitudes. Ex: Mach .80 at 40,000 ft, vs Mach 5 at 100,000 ft

I am interested in getting a sense of how much extra energy is needed to overcome drag at different speeds and altitudes. For example, for me a baseline would the drag on an airplane flying something ...
6
votes
0answers
76 views

Which aerobatic maneuvers are most likely to make people airsick?

I'm interested in classifying aerobatic maneuvers by their propensity to cause airsickness. While there will be some variation across a population, I think we can use first principle arguments to show ...
5
votes
1answer
120 views

What was the most efficient cruising altitude of the Lancaster bomber?

An earlier question concerning lower high altitude cruising fuel efficiency of the B-29 bombers with 4 x Wright R-3350 air-cooled radial Cyclone engines made me wonder about the Lancaster bomber, ...
1
vote
3answers
122 views

Calculating angle of attack during bank

I'm programming a flight dynamics simulation and am running into issues with calculating the angle of attack during banked flight. I know what I'm doing wrong, but I'm not sure what I should be doing ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Does my instrument rating 250nm cross-country also count for my 100nm commercial one?

Can the 250nm XC required for the instrument rating per 61.65(d)(iii)(A) also count for the 100nm day dual commercial XC required in 61.129(3)(iii)? My 250nm XC during instrument training included a ...
3
votes
1answer
77 views

How do we renew an aircraft's expired FAA registration?

How do we renew an expired aircraft registration? It needs repair and is not airworthy. The loan on the aircraft was paid off. We may need to sell the aircraft and transfer the title. How is the ...
14
votes
1answer
4k views

What are those gray spots on the wing?

I recently flew on an Airbus A321 and noticed these gray spots on the wing, circled in red. What are those?

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