All Questions

10
votes
0answers
213 views

Is there research suggesting that VFR cruise altitude rules improve safety?

In the United States, 14 CFR 91.159 prescribes cruising altitudes for level flight under VFR: (a) When operating below 18,000 feet MSL and (1) On a magnetic course of zero degrees ...
8
votes
0answers
216 views

Denver International Airport pneumatic tube systems

Wikipedia says: Denver International Airport uses many pneumatic tube systems, including a 25 cm diameter system for moving aircraft parts to remote concourses, a 10 cm system for United Airlines ...
7
votes
0answers
228 views

When were the last subsonic turbojet-powered airliners retired from commercial passenger service?

The very first jetliners (Comet, Tu-104, Caravelle I-VI, 707-120/-220/-320, DC-8 series 10-30, original 720, CV-880) all used turbojet engines, turbofans not being available until later; when ...
6
votes
0answers
2k views

How can this ACARS message be decoded?

With regards to the text below, can someone offer either advice or a link to a website/document that would help decode ACARS messages. I am ok with the following: QU - ACARS "to" address Q - ACARS ...
5
votes
0answers
50 views

Why is the 737’s aileron/spoiler authority reduced at low flap settings?

According to the NTSB report on the crash of United Airlines Flight 585, the ability of the 737’s lateral controls (ailerons and flight spoilers) to counteract the rolling forces produced by (say) a ...
5
votes
0answers
185 views

Are tritium runway lights widespread in remote areas?

There was some interest in the 80s and 90s in providing runways in remote areas with tritium lighting (which requires no external power, since the radioactive decay in a sample of tritium gas induces ...
5
votes
0answers
110 views

Why does obstacle clearance area splay outward instead of being a rectangle?

I am having trouble figuring out the logic behind the way that obstacle clearance areas are constructed. Take, for example, a departure procedure where Initial Climb Area is defined in TERPS (section ...
5
votes
0answers
279 views

Can the RAM AIR valve cause depressurization on the CRJ-900?

On the CRJ-900 AIR-CONDITIONING panel there is a RAM AIR switch light which opens a valve and allows air from the ram air scoop to enter the mixing manifold for distribution to both the flight deck ...
5
votes
0answers
59 views

How is a 14 CFR 101 sUAS NOTAM filed for an unregistered aircraft?

FAA promotes the utilization of NOTAMs to announce sUAS operations, and requires it in 333 exemptions and some 107 waivers. However, sUAS (drones / model aircraft) under 14 CFR 101 have been ...
5
votes
0answers
165 views

Are there any future regulations planned for electric multi-motor LSAs?

It seems with electric control of the multi engine configuration, such as with NASA's new leap tech technology, that there should be a way to use multiple motors in the LSA category. Is there anything ...
4
votes
0answers
147 views

How does the Pseudo-Satelite Zephyr land?

I don't see how the Airbus Pseudo-Satelite Zephyr solar plane can land safely. It this video, it is "thrown" to take off, but no gear or something similar is visible. Will it just land on its belly? ...
4
votes
0answers
148 views

How can I convert a frozen ATPL from South Africa to an Iranian one?

I have got a frozen ATPL license from South Africa and I'm from Iran. I came back home last year and I have converted my CPL/IR license to the Iranian piloting license by doing Air Law and Human ...
4
votes
0answers
167 views

Does shrouding a propeller minimize induced drag by equalizing the downwash velocity along it's blades?

EDIT: It's not a duplicate of Are ducted fans more efficient? That question and the answers doesn't address the reason for the higher theoretical efficiency, it is more about efficiency in practice (...
4
votes
0answers
119 views

Which aircraft/powerplant manufacturers use metric hardware?

The vast majority of airframes and powerplants use U.S. standard/SAE hardware. Which manufacturers of engines and airframes use metric hardware?
4
votes
0answers
96 views

What is the maximum allowed intensity for light beams pointing at the sky for non-aviation purposes?

In Hong Kong, I'm designing a show with light beams and i'm thinking using Robe Megapointe lights (https://www.robe.cz/megapointe/). I've been ask by the client to follow the aviation regulation. ...
4
votes
0answers
385 views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
4
votes
0answers
129 views

Who is this flyer seen in Oakland c. 1929?

Looking for identification of the man on the left. Second from left is W.A. "Sandy" Sanders, third is Denny Wright, and fourth is Clyde Sunderland. Oakland, around 1929.
4
votes
0answers
98 views

How come diverterless supersonic inlets haven't been discovered much earlier?

DSI's seem like such an absolutely elegant solution to a problem that has, so far, been solved in a truly overly complicated way. So, if I'm not missing out on some important small speck of knowledge ...
4
votes
0answers
104 views

What uses for flight did early aviation pioneers envision?

Between 1903 and 1914, what did the aviation pioneers think flight would be used for, besides military purposes? Did they envision anything like crop dusting, commercial transportation, charting ...
4
votes
0answers
115 views

What is Lower Traffic Area (LTA) airspace in France?

In France, AIP ENR-2.1 subsection 2.1.2 defines airspaces of type CTA (control area), UTA (upper traffic area) and LTA (lower traffic area). I'm not familiar with LTA which appears not to exist ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

Why some US STAR fixes/waypoints are included in FAA's legacy files but not in FAA's published STAR procedures?

I have noticed that some US STAR procedures include (slightly) different number of waypoints, depending on which source material is consulted. Take for example the CAMRN4 STAR and its corresponding ...
4
votes
0answers
388 views

When do the Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft reach End-of-life?

When can we expect the Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft to reach End-of-life / stop flying? The Next Generation is the name given to the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 airliner.
4
votes
0answers
141 views

Who was the first flight test engineer?

The discipline of Flight Test Engineering has existed since at least 1903, but when did engineers identify their work, distinguish their work from other disciplines, under terms that would mark it as ...
4
votes
0answers
311 views

What is the effect of Mach number on efficiency, thrust and specific fuel consumption of a ramjet engine?

My graphs show that overall efficiency and thrust first increase, reach a peak and then fall in the supersonic range (M=1-5) whereas SFC first and then increases rapidly near M 5. Why does this ...
4
votes
0answers
466 views

What's the relationship between drag divergence Mach number and maximum operating limit Mach number?

The drag divergence Mach number, also known as the force divergence Mach number, is the Mach number where drag waves start to form. The drag divergence Mach number is typically between 5 to 10 ...
4
votes
0answers
197 views

What are the common private pilot practices for helicopter off-airport landing in US?

These questions address the legal aspects of off-airport landing and basically conclude that the relevant laws and regulations are very fragmented. Aside from the legal aspects, what are common ...
4
votes
0answers
173 views

What drives the design decision of where to place the refueling receptacle?

What has driven the decision to place the refueling receptacle behind the pilot and to rear of the plane. Is this simply driven by the change away from drogue and probe and the location decided by ...
4
votes
0answers
130 views

What are the fatigue regulations in the US and Australia for military transport helicopters/rotorcraft?

For transport category military helicopters, what are the fatigue regulations as specified by the US and Australian regulatory bodies? I've managed to find that FAA has FAR 29.571 (US) but this ...
4
votes
0answers
175 views

What is the effect of sudden extreme temperature change on brake disks of large aircraft?

What is the temperature of brake disks at maximum altitude of a jumbo like a 747 and airbus A380 for say a 10 hour flight. Does the temperature drop below zero and what is the effect on the metal ...
4
votes
0answers
244 views

What are the popular algorithms or softwares used in identifying or track flights by ATC?

Just curious to know about the algorithms /software used by ATC for tracking flights in real time.Can it be classified under ERP ?If no under which category does that fall ?
4
votes
0answers
121 views

What additional considerations do pilots have when deviating from the planned routing on flights dispatched under Method 2?

This article about Method 1 and Method 2 gives a brief explanation of Methods 1 and 2 in terms of dispatching flights under 14 CFR 121. Here's an excerpt. FAR 121.191 requires that we dispatch our ...
4
votes
0answers
261 views

Which US airport has the lowest circling MDH?

As I recently contemplated 14 CFR 135.223 and its implications, I began wondering about airports with exceptionally low circling minima. For a little context and background, the part of §135.223 that ...
4
votes
0answers
256 views

What was the Trim Problem on the Brabazon's First Flight?

In this video, starting at 18:15, the copilot on the Bristol Brabazon's first flight recounts that the aircraft became airborne a little sooner than its pilots expected, and that despite the captain ...
4
votes
0answers
161 views

Why is the flow ahead of a shock wave chaotic?

Here is the image of a shock wave on a cone in a small supersonic wind tunnel, the white lines are the condensations formed in the test chamber due to flow expansion. Why are the condensations so ...
4
votes
0answers
161 views

How is the required motor power calculated for a quadcopter?

I've been trying to find the required motor power for a quadcopter. I first calculated drag power and then I made a linear trend line for motor power against motor weight. I made the motor power 1.5 ...
4
votes
0answers
339 views

Who must approve a globally distributed satellite to ground laser communication system?

Laser Light Communications (US) plan for several dozen optical high speed data links between satellites and ground is described in Aviation Week's article Big Gains On Horizon For Laser Communications ...
4
votes
0answers
131 views

How are “charter” and “passenger” flights defined in the AIDX standard?

I'd like to know the difference between these flight types in the IATA AIDX standard; specifically, for use in fuel order notifications.
4
votes
0answers
468 views

If an aircraft does not have an FDR, must one be installed to comply with Flight Data Monitoring requirements in EASA countries?

Flight Data Monitoring (FDM), which analyzes FDR data to accomplish things like ensuring that pilots are following SOP's, is a requirement for EASA's Third Country Operators (TCO) certification, ...
4
votes
0answers
209 views

Why were the TWA TriStar middle seats smaller than the aisle seats?

I was watching an old TWA advert and a question came up: why were the L-1011 TriStar middle seats smaller than the aisle seats?
4
votes
0answers
395 views

What is the best combination of airfoil shape for flight in ground effect over water?

What is the best airfoil shape for flight in ground effect over water?
4
votes
0answers
188 views

What is the purpose of sum voltage monitor?

I was looking at the design diagram of actuators. Every channel of the actuator is connected to a voltage differential transducer. The transducer outputs are fed to a sum voltage monitor. I could not ...
4
votes
0answers
160 views

Why is this G-AIRMET's valid time earlier than its issued time?

For this G-AIRMET map, why is the valid time earlier than the time it was issued?
4
votes
0answers
454 views

What is the current state of regulation regarding VTOL aircraft in the LSA category?

With quite a few concept designs in progress, I am curious what the current FAA regulations are regarding vertical takeoff and landing vehicles in the light sport aircraft category.
3
votes
0answers
30 views

Temperature Indicator in Manned Balloon

14CFR31.85 ("Required Basic Equipment" for manned free-air balloons) requires an Envelope Temperature Indicator (ETI). This is a requirement of the FAA. Not necessarily the manufacturer. Some balloon ...
3
votes
0answers
135 views

What is the longest time after which plane crash survivors were rescued?

I found: Aviator Bob Gauchie detains the record for solo arctic survival by a downed airman, enduring 58 days of arctic weather before his rescue in Canada 1967. After 72 days on the glacier, 16 of ...
3
votes
0answers
146 views

What was the lift equation used by the Wright brothers?

NOTICE: The modern lift equation and the lift equation used by the Wright brothers in 1900 are slightly different. The lift coefficient of the modern equation is referenced to the dynamic pressure ...
3
votes
0answers
98 views

Which individual aircraft has carried the most passengers in its lifetime?

I'm guessing that the aircraft will be one of the 747s that service the domestic Japanese market, making regular short hops full of passengers - but perhaps actual figures exist to confirm this. See ...
3
votes
0answers
67 views

Where can I find an image of the Thales FMS220 RMS page?

I'm looking for photo/color image showing Thales FMS220 RMS (Radio Management System) page. Also COMMUNICATION and XPDR pages are highly welcome.
3
votes
0answers
62 views

How do I include a STAR in an ICAO flight plan?

Would it be in accordance with ICAO norms to include a STAR identification right after the airway name in the field 15 of the flight plan? Or should the connecting point between the airway and the ...
3
votes
0answers
202 views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...

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