All Questions

14,556 questions
65 views

Can I log the flight as the authorized instructor on board? Commercial long cross country

I was an authorized instructor on board for my students long commercial cross country. Do I log any of that flight time?
170 views

Why are all-moving horizontal stabilizers common but all-moving rudders rare on fighters?

According to Wikipedia Stabilators were developed to achieve adequate pitch control in supersonic flight, and are almost universal on modern military combat aircraft. All non-delta-winged ...
413 views

Why does the B-52 have such a tiny rudder?

The B-52 (aka Stratofortress, aka Grey Lady, aka BUFF) has a minuscule rudder for an aircraft of its size and wing-mounted engine placement: Compare to, for instance, the rudder on a 747: The B-52’s ...
93 views

How to reverse course when there is no published course reversal?

Coming from the SW on the RNAV RWY 15 KONO, how do I align myself with the final approach course? There is only one IAF and no published course reversal. Is it up to me how I get established inbound?...
138 views

What are the issues involved in converting a quadjet into a twinjet?

As you are probably all aware already, the fewer engines you have, the better your fuel efficiency; that’s why the airlines are selling off their (quadjet) 747s and buying (twinjet) 777s, why they’ve ...
116 views

Why weren’t the Comet’s overhead ADF windows roundified along with its passenger windows?

Following the crashes of two Comet 1s in early 1954 due to metal fatigue, all future Comets (and the few surviving Comet 1s that were rebuilt rather than scrapped, all of them in military service) ...
82 views

Do a turboprop’s compressor and turbine rotors windmill when the engine is shut down and feathered?

If a jet engine is shut down in flight, it continues to turn due to the aircraft’s forward motion forcing air through the engine, causing it to “windmill” in the airflow. Is this also true for ...
201 views

Did Boeing or Lockheed ever seriously consider releasing a widebody airliner powered by low-bypass engines?

During the 1960s race to build the first widebody jetliner, each of the three major engine manufacturers was racing to put out a high-bypass engine for one of those jumbo jets: Boeing went with Pratt ...
32 views

Are there any special considerations involved in designing manual flight controls for supersonic/hypersonic aircraft?

What things, if any, might need to be taken into account in the design of manual flight controls for supersonic or hypersonic aircraft that wouldn’t need to be taken into account with manual controls ...
81 views

Why did Lockheed abandon the Constellation II?

It’s well known that Lockheed never designed a first-generation jetliner. Not as well known: they actually did! The L-193 Constellation II, a quadjet with four tail-mounted engines (a configuration ...
110 views

Why does an aircraft's nose tend to pitch downward at higher bank angles?

In the usual aircraft configuration, the center of lift is located behind the CG producing negative pitch moment (the horizontal stabilizer counteracts it by producing downforce - positive pitching ...
94 views

Why can't ramjet diffusers be stacked to achieve a good overall pressure ratio?

The problem with ramjets is that they only gain efficiency similiar to turbojets at speeds above mach 2. However, ramjets can operate at speeds of a few hundred km/h. Why therefore cant ramjet ...
152 views

Why would ATC issue a takeoff clearance and also tell the same aircraft to maintain visual separation at the same time?

I heard this from the Phoenix Sky Harbor airport tower years ago on a sunny and hot day. Is it because the controller is able to take off aircraft more quickly by putting the responsibility on pilots ...
42 views

Where can I find approved entry/exit points for Free Route Airspace (FRA)?

How can I find approved entry/exit points for Free Route Airspace (FRA) in different countries?
52 views

Is it possible to counter and minimise g forces for more speed by design or technology [closed]

Apparently humans can survive betwee 3 G and 5 G G-forces. Is it possible by design or technology to invent and incorporate that technology or design in passenger planes should we surpass all ...
207 views

Why is the A330neo more efficient than the A350 on shorter routes?

For A330neo Wikipedia page, is written: A330neo enables profitability on shorter ranges where the longer-range A350 and Boeing 787 aren't optimized. For what reasons it is true? A330 and A350 ...
102 views

How is crew resource management trained?

Pilots are taught that pilot monitoring should speak up if something seems wrong, and take over the controls if the pilot flying does not respond adequately, even if the pilot flying is a senior ...
162 views

What percentage of professional pilots end their career early for medical reasons?

As an amateur pilot I'm aware that I can lose my medical at some point and have to give up flying. For a professional, losing a medical can end their career. I know several people who wouldn't even ...
153 views

Why aren’t any JP-1-type (extreme-narrow-cut) fuels in use today?

JP-1 was the first U.S. military standard jet fuel (hence the 1 in the designation), with its specifications issued in 1944; it was an extremely narrow-cut, high-alkane kerosene, not far from what ...
103 views

Why didn’t the 757 have manual-reversion capability?

The Boeing 757 was the highest-capacity and latest-designed narrowbody Boeing ever produced (and, in the case of the 757-300, the highest-capacity narrowbody anyone ever produced); it was also the ...
110 views

Why descent below DA/DH or MDA could only be accomplished using natural vision?

I'm curious why descent below DA/DH or MDA could only be accomplished in visual approach conditions? Is there any regulation to indicate that?
616 views

What does “<aircraft type> X miles in trail, runway 25R cleared to land” mean?

I was listening to the LiveATC Phoenix North Tower feed as he was clearing aircraft to land. He said something like "Southwest fifteen sixty five, Phoenix Tower, (aircraft type), X miles in trail, ...
123 views

Is there a way for passengers to know which runways their flight will use?

When I fly, I like to see the airport when I take off and land. Is there a way I can know, in advance, which runway the plane is likely to depart/arrive from so I know which side of the plane to sit ...
126 views

Which propeller configuration is the one that generates the least turbulent flow in a wind tunnel?

I looked at the post here but still have some questions Why are push-propellers so rare, yet they are still around? This is along the same idea but the answers are not too helpful either. Pros and ...
362 views

Can two opposite localizers to a single runway be on simultaneously?

In case of a single runway with two separate ILS systems (one in each end, facing localizers) operating on two different frequencies, can both localizers be on and transmitting at the same time, or ...
36 views

I could not understand what is the difference between ADS-R with anonymous address (CF=6, IMF=1) and TIS-B CF=5, which on ICAO Doc 9871 is described, for Version 1 as: Fine TIS-B Message AA field ...
182 views

On the 737NG, after deployment of spoilers automatically after landing, do the spoilers automatically go back down?

So, I was just wondering whether the spoilers on a 737-800, after automatic deployment when landing, will go back down automatically, or need manual input by pilots for the spoilers to go down.
112 views

Is there employment opportunities of becoming a pilot [closed]

I am 18 years old and I want to become a pilot so bad .i got B grades in math and C grades in physics and geography.but my parents don't want me to be one since is hard to get employment of becoming a ...
60 views

Are there attempts at fly-by-wire servo flap controlled rotor?

Reading this question and then this document about servo flap controlled rotor I was wondering if there has been any attempt at building one fixed hub helicopter with twistable blades hosting at 75% ...
56 views

Force Balance in Wind Tunnel

I am considering a model wing inside a wind tunnel supported from underneath from its center of mass. Two load cells can be used, when properly oriented, to measure the lift force and the drag force. ...
148 views

Are helicopter searchlights fixed or movable?

Can the helicopter crew move the helicopter searchlights or are they always fixed at a specific location on the helicopter? They are used by rescue helicopters mostly but I am not sure if crew can ...
189 views

Why do some aircraft approach the runway with a long detour and others with a short one? [closed]

I am currently analyzing flight data. For some flights landing at Frankfurt Airport. As you can see in the graphic, some of the planes fly out about 100km to then fly again towards the runway. Some ...
51 views

Flight Control Weight limitations

Does anybody know any limitations of flight control weights? For instance elevators must have same weight? What is the acceptabld difference/limits and what would be the reason of overweighting? (...
28 views

Effect of Rudder on Velocity Vector

Suppose we have an aircraft flying in steady, level flight at zero angle of attack. In this configuration, the velocity vector $\vec{V}$ is perfectly aligned with the $x$ axis. At some time $t=t_0$, ...
143 views

Do any propellers/propfans use stator vanes? Why is this not a commonplace feature?

I understand that axial-flow turbine engines generally include stator vanes behind every(?) compressor and turbine stage. This makes quite intuitively sense, because without them the rotating blades ...
78 views

What is a simple way to explain why best range airspeed is below normal cruise airspeed? [closed]

Without using complex mathematics, please explain why best range airspeed is less than normal cruise airspeed.
18 views

Wing Shape: Long/Wide Span Wings vs Deep Wings [duplicate]

Planes use wings to generate lift. The wider the span of the wing (looking at the plane from the front) the more lift it generates, however, this is at the expense of more drag. Some planes like the ...
2k views

What kind of planes are on this old photo?

Not sure what kind of planes are on this old photo? Does anyone have any idea?
143 views

Why was the VC10 unusually prone to reverser-induced buffeting?

According to Wikipedia, the original (“Standard”) version of the Vickers VC10 had thrust reversers only on the outboard engines, as putting reversers on the inboard engines produced severe tailplane ...
351 views

Can a turbofan run without the fan to provide power without thrust?

Is it possible for a turbofan jet - like on a 747 - to run without the fan, if for example you just want the thrust from the internal jet to use to heat up water, not to use as thrust?
362 views

Can anyone identify what/where this photo is of?

This is a photo by the Real Photograph Co. (Liverpool) No.684. I think it may be a crashed WW1 Biplane (lots of the photos with it were WW1 biplanes).
211 views

What vertical separation is required in a holding stack to avoid wake turbulence?

Sometimes in my free time I play Endless ATC, a game where one acts as the approach and departure controller. In the game (as in real life) the controller is forced to put planes in a holding stack, ...
295 views

How do the military pilots of Air Force One train for exceptional circumstances in an airliner not designed for high performance?

This article discusses how on one occasion, the pilot of Air Force One, the personal air transport of the President of the United States, was required to perform evasive manoeuvres to avoid presumed ...
185 views

What exactly was the American WW2 smokebomb used in naval warfare?

In WW2 the Americans used a kind of smoke/gas-bomb that they mounted under the SBD planes in naval warfare. What was the purpose of that device and what is it called?
79 views

Can helicopter rotor produce infrasound?

While watching a Mil Mi-17 helicopter takeoff I experienced strange thing. The helicopter produces a lot of noise even when just starting the engines. But shortly before taking off the high-pitched ...
1k views

Why fuel left/right when C172 is secured?

The C172 POH checklists say to set the fuel selector to "right" or "left" when securing the plane but "both" while operating the plane. What is the point of changing the fuel selector when the engine ...
65 views

Is there a public NOTAM archive that's searchable by airport?

Pilotweb lists NOTAMs currently in effect. Is it possible to view or sort the history for a particular airport?
33 views

Hydromechanical/Electronic fuel control system [closed]

Can someone explain the picture below which represents hydromechanical/electronic fuel control? What's the function of the solenoid on the picture below? What are the differences between solely ...
10k views

Is 'bouncing' an airliner on landing in high winds a deliberate technique, or something always unexpected?

Last week, 767 landing at Newark, high winds, a good deal of rocking in the last few minutes, some passengers quite distressed. The landing was harder and noisier than usual, and we immediately ...
166 views

When is 'heavy' used in callsign?

I have heared at ATC communication that some aircraft uses a heavy word in the call sign. What does heavy means? When it is used? Is it used when aircraft is heavier than 200-300 tons?

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